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England's Cardinals 


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THE HOLY ROOD. A Paper read at the Munich 
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 -: XXIII. 






THE materials for the compilation of these bio- 
graphical sketches have been obtained from many 
sources, especially the nz"ctiollary of National 
Blograplzy. Permission to reprint (here somewhat 
abbreviated) has kindly been accorded in the 
follo\ving cases :-" The Cardinal Archbishops of 
Canterbury and York tJ series from the Catholic 
Fireside, as well as "Cardinal Repyngdon"; 
" England's Dominican Cardinals, tJ from The 
Rosary; "Our only Franciscan Cardinal," from 
the Franciscan Herald 
. "Cardinal Allen, tJ from 
The Messenger
. "The Cardinal Duke of York," 
from St. Peter's Net j and "England's Soldier 
Cardinal," from Stella Mar'':s. Several doubtful 
creations, such as that of St. Thomas à Becket's 
faithful companion, Herbert de Bosham-enumerated, 
for instance, by Mr. R. F. Williams in his unfinished 
Lives of the Englz"sh Card1:nals-are not included in 
the follo\ving list. 
A more complete account of our Benedictine 
Cardinals may be found in the Downside Review, 
April, 1901, while a short Life of Cardinal Pole can 
be obtained from the writer. 

D. B. 

St. Ge,jrge's Day, 1903. 


THE Roman Purple holds an international record 
extending over a period of nearly seventeen centuries 
which is quite unparalleled. Although mostly Italian, 
these Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church have 
included from every nation in Latin Christendom an 
unbroken succession of men generally distinguished 
for personal virtues and intellectual merit, men also 
of exalted birth or high position. 
In this brilliant and unique series of Papal 
" Cabinets," our own country takes a prominent 
place, though only one English Prince of the Church 
has ever attained the Supreme and Sovereign 
Pontificate itself. 

Cardinal Pullen. 

THE first name upon our historic list is that of ROBERT 
LEN, whose surname is spelt in various ways by 
historians. The date of his creation is uncertain, 
but probably he \vas raised to +-he Cardinalate by 



Pope Celestine II. in A.D. 1143. Pullen had taught 
theology and philosophy with distinction at both 
Paris and Oxford, afterwards becoming Archdeacon 
of Rochester. Among his pupils were the future 
Pope, Blessed Eugenius IlL, and the famous John of 
Salisbury, \vhile St. Bernard was his life-long friend. 
Our first English Cardinal is stated to have 
virtually laid the foundations of Oxford University 
upon the lines of the new methods he had witnessed 
in Paris. Anyhow he was among the very first 
" Masters" to teach at our Alma Mater. 
Apparently summoned to Rome by Innocent II., 
he settled in the Eternal City for the remainder of his 
life: Pope Lucius II. made him ChanceJlor of the 
Apostolic See. Cardinal Pullen died about the 
year 1147, and certain of his learned theological 
writings are still preserved. 

Cardinal Breakspear. 



Now, curiously and somewhat provokingly, second 
in point of creation upon our list comes the only 
Englishman among those 257 successors of Blessed 
Peter J Prince of the Apostles, who across nineteen 



centuries have held the Petrine Keys and exercised 
the PrivilegÙl1n Petri. 
This \vas NICHOLAS BREAKSPEAR, \vhose life-story is 
exceedingly remarkable: he appears to have been 
born at Abbot's Lang-ley in Hertfordshire amid 
obscure poverty. His father becallle a lay-brother 
at the great Benedictine Abbey of St. Alban's, \vhere 
Nicholas himself was no doubt educated and after- 
wards engaged in some menial occupation; ho\vever, 
for reasons unknown, he was refused admittance into 
the monastic novitiate there. 
In disappointment and destitution this adventurous 
young Englishman managed to reach France and the 
future "University" of Paris, where he studied for 
several years. Thence he migrated to Aries and 
frequented its schools as an alumnus, if not actually a 
member, of the Premonstratensian Order. Later on 
our" poor scholar " entered the Augustinian Abbey 
of Canons Regular at St. Rufus near A vignon-at 
first as a lay-brother: eventuaIly he was here admitted 
as a novice and in due course professed a monk. 
Breakspear must have been a man of industrious 
genius as weU as marked personality, for henceforth 
his promotion was rapid. In A.D. 1137, he became 
Abbot of St. Rufus, and his strictness in enforcing 
discipline led to personal appeals from the relaxed 
monks and himself to Rome. 
These in turn led to a most surprising sequel: for 
Pope Eugenius I I I., discerning his virtues and ability, 
retained our English Abbot at the Papal Court, and 
forthwith, in A.D. 1146, actually created him Cardinal 
Bishop of Albano-the highest honour in his gift. 
HemayhaveaccompaniedBl. Eugenius to France when 
the latter gave the Cross to King Louis VI I. before 
the second Crusade; anyhow, during the next six 
years he would have been doubtless busily occupied 
-in cuna. 




Afterwards, in the year I 152, this Cistercian Pontiff 
appointed Cardinal Breakspear Legate-Apostolic to 
Scandinavia, in order to reorganize its Hierarchy, 
and in response to Royal requests. On his way 
north, Breakspear visited England, and was thus the 
first English Cardinal to set foot on his native land. 
His Legatine Mission was very successful, and led 
to the closer connection of Scandinavia with Rome. 
The Cardinal, after pacifying civil strife, selected 
Trondhjem as the seat of the desired Norwegian Arch- 
bishopric, and transferred the Bishop of Stavanger to 
that See as Metropolitan. Included in its jurisdiction 
were Iceland, Greenland, the Faroes, the Orkneys 
and Shetlands, the Hebrides, and even the Isle of 
Man, in addition to Norway itself. 
Cardinal Breakspear also completely reformed and 
reorganized the Norwegian Church, and moreover 
secured several enactments for the national weal: in 
consequence his memory has ever been cherished by 
the Norse people. 
This diplomatic Papa] Legate then visited Sweden 
but, owing to internal rivalries, the erection of its 
Archiepiscopal See had to be postponed. Thence he 
journeyed to Denmark, and appeased the Archbishop 
of Lund (from whose province Norway had been 
detached) by confirming him in his Prinlacy of all 
Scandinavia, with the addition of new privileges. 
Upon his return to Rome from so beneficial a 
mission in A. D. I 154, Cardinal Breakspear was hailed 
as "Apostle of the North," and shortly afterwards 
the venerable Pope Anastasius IV. departed this 
life. Immediately and unanimously the Conclave 
elected to the Sovereign Pontificate our illustrious 
fellow-countryman, who took the title of Adrian the 
Fourth and was enthroned in old St. Peter's on 
Christmas Day, 1154. 
So did a humble artizan, by sheer merit, rise to 



earth's supreme position - "in thirty years from 
poverty to Pope" - truly an amazing progress. 
Moreover, though one of the shortest, his tenure of 
the Keys was one of the most important in Holy 
Church's proud record: fe\v Pontiffs have had to 
face such difficulties and few have faced them so well. 
Rome's new King was at once attacked by the 
republican Arnold of Brescia, who secured the 
adhesion of its Senate; from Anagni Pope Adrian 
replied by an unprecedented step. He laid the 
Eternal City itself under an interdict, during Holy 
Week too, which created a panic of dismay. Forth- 
with the phantom Republic disappeared, and the 
Sovereign Pontiff returned in triumph for his corona- 
tion at the Lateran Cathedral. 
Meanwhile the new Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, 
had invaded northern Italy and forced the Lombard 
cities to pay him homage: he now entered the 
Campagna, and Italian freedom became seriously 
menaced. F ortunatel y, however, Barbarossa wished 
to be crowned Emperor in St. Peter's, and here tay 
the Pope's opportunity: first of all Adrian on his part 
secured an Imperial covenant of protection against 
all aggression. Thereupon, according to custom, 
the Domnlls Apostoliclls advanced in state to meet 
the great Emperor near Nepi in 1155, and conduct 
him to Rome ; bu t Barbarossa refused to render the 
traditional homage of holding his stirrup as Adrian 
dismounted from his white palfrey - an important 
piece of symbolism, vouchsafed by German law. Con- 
sequently the Pontiff declined to give him the kiss of 
peace, and eventually returned to N epi. 
The dispute over this serious crisis continued for 
several days, and ended in the haughty monarch's 
entire submission, in an effective vindication of the 
Church's liberty. The illustrious pair then proceeded 
to Rome, where in the ancient Basilica of St. Peter 



and amid a gorgeous vision, the English Pope on 
June the 18th, 1155, crowned Barbarossa Emperor of 
the Holy Roman Empire. 
Once again the Papal City was the scene of 
democratic disturbances, now against the Germans, 
and eventually the unhappy Arnold himself was 
executed by order of its · Prefect, not of the Pope- 
King. In addition, a further cause of anxiety had 
a risen. William I I., the Norman King of Sicily, 
had been crowned without obtaining the sanction 
of his feudal over-lord, the Roman Pontiff ; 
accordingly Adrian IV. refused to recognize his 
sovereignty, whereupon William invaded the Papal 
States. Excommunication follo\\'ed, and the By- 
zantine Emperor intervened, for the Greeks were 
attacking Apulia; but this Sicilian adventurer 
managed to intercept the Pope at Benevento. 
Here a satisfactory treaty was arranged: William 
took the oath of fealty and promised the usual tribute, 
while Adrian had to grant him certain ecclesiastical 
Thereupon the Pontiff was enabled to spend the 
winter of A.D. 1156-7 at Viterbo in peace; he was 
eager to bring about the reunion of the separated 
Oriental Churches with Rome, and corresponded 
\\?ith the Greek Emperor, the Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, and other schismatic prelates. The result 
might have been momentous, but unfortunately a 
second feud arose with the Emperor Barbarossa. 
AlTIOng other offences, the latter had allowed the 
Archbishop of Lund to be imprisoned upon his return 
from a visit ad lz"nulza. Pope Adrian at once sent 
Legates to Germany \vith a strong letter of protest; 
at the Diet this was misunderstood, or misinterpreted 
into a papal claim of suzerainty over the Empire itself. 
The dispute arose over the word beneficZ"um, 
which might mean either a "favour" or a "fief": 



Barbarossa replied that he held his crown from God 
alone, issued an edict limiting ecclesiastical appeals 
to Rome, and was supported by the German bishops. 
Ho\vever the Pontiff satisfactorily eXplained the real 
meaning of his words in a second legation. 
But in November, 1158, the Emperor again invaded 
Italy \vith the undisguised object of crushing its 
independence under an imperial despotism. At a 
Diet held near Piacenza, several Italian States sub- 
mitted and the most extreme claims were set forth; 
Milan and other besieged cities fell, and the outlook, 
early in 1 159, was desperate.indeed. 
Then the dauntless and indomitable Englishman 
appeared upon the scene, with effective result-" It 
\vas at this juncture that Pope Adrian stepped 
forth as the champion of Italian liberty. In his 
letters he severely blamed the weakness of the 
Lombards, encouraged the Milanese, fearlessly 
bearded the ruthless tyrant, withstood him in the 
affair of the Archbishopric of Ravenna, and daunt- 
lessly upheld the rights of the Church and the Holy 
See. He made a powerful appeal to the three Arch- 
bishop-Electors of Germany, and at the Diet of 
Bologna, in the Easter of I 159, practically offered to 
the all-po\verful Emperor by his Legates an ulti. 
nlatum, behind which was the dread threat of 
deprivation of the Imperial crown and excommunica- 
tion. This sturdy bearding of the lion in his den has 
\von the just admiration of historians" (Dr. Casartelli 
in the Dublin Review for January, 1902). 
Nevertheless the Emperor remained obdurate, his 
German host advanced Rome\vards, and an appalling 
crisis seemed imminent. lVloreover, in addition to 
attacking Holy Church, Barbarossa had repudiated 
his childless \vife and violated the indissoluble tie of 
matrimony. Consequently Pope Adrian was about 
to promulgate the Bull of excommunication, when 



he suddenly died of quinsy at Anagni, on Septem- 
ber the 1 st, 1159. 
In English affairs our great Pontiff is chiefly 
celebrated for his alleged feudal U grant" of Ireland 
to King Henry I I. in return for the levy of Peter's 
Pence from every house in that Emerald Isle. The 
rea) facts seem rather obscure, and naturally the 
unpleasant truth of this very sore incident has been 
vigorously questioned by Irish Catholic writers! 
On Adrian's accession to the Papacy, the King of 
England had sent an embassy to congratulate him: 
Henry also charged the envoys to represent his desire 
to further civilize Ireland's people and bring them 
more fully within the pale of the Holy Roman Church. 
The Pope certainly appears to have consented by a 
Letter Apostolic, granting the desired overlordship, 
upon the old claim that all islands converted to 
Christianity were the possession of Rome. Anyhow, 
this privilege was never utilized, and perhaps 
the papal document itself was lost shortly after- 
Included in this Embassy were three Anglo-Norman 
Bishops and the Abbot of Pope Adrian's old home, 
St. Alban's; he now honoured the latter monastery 
by exempting it from episcopal jurisdiction, and also, 
later, by giving it precedence over both Glastonbury 
and Westminster. Henceforth St. Alban's remained 
the premier Abbey of our realm. 
Adrian 1"\-". also, t'1zter alia, took important measures 
concerning the Spanish Church, and promoted an 
amicable feeling between France and England. As 
an author, it is noticeable that apparently he wrote 
the treatise De C'ollceptione Beatissimæ Vz.rgz.n'ls. This 
work advocates the orthodoxy of that doctrine (the 
Immaculate Conception), which another English 
prelate-St. Anselm of Canterbury-had been the 
first to promulgate in the West, and which Adrian's 



successor in A.D. 1854 defined as part of the 
Dcposil1nn Fidei. 

Iany personal traits of Adrian IV. have been 
handed down through his intimate friend, John of 
Salisbury, afterwards Bishop of Chartres. His 
holiness of character, strength of \vill, straight- 
for\vard and humble demeanour, were as remarkable 
as his kindly charm of manner and intellectual ability. 
He \vas fanlous, too, as a preacher, and possessed a 
\vonderful voice, \vhile evidently his personal appear- 
ance \vas very striking. \Vithin his brief pontificate 
of less than five years were crowded a turbulent 
series of events, \vhich display him to history as 
among the greatest of Popes. Continental Catholic 
writers and more than one admiring Anglican 
biographer have done justice to so proud a memory; 
yet ho\v astonishingly little the average English 
Catholic of to-day knows, or even seems to care, 
about it ! 
Himself a disciple of his falTIOUS predecessor, 
St. Gregory VII. (Hildebrand), in his political 
policy, Pope Adrian IV. deemed it his duty to uphold 
the Petrine heritage in a vigorous manner consonant 
with that arbitrary age. Thanks largely to his fear- 
less diplomacy, in the subsequent struggle the Papacy 
emerged triumphant. 
Again to quote the Very Rev. Dr. Casartelli's 
interesting sketch-" in stepping for\vard to uphold 
the cause of the Church and I taly against the greatest 
and most formidable of all the German l{aisers, he 
became the saviour of Europe and of Christendom." 
For if Adrian had not reigned, probably (( the glorious 
history of the struggle for freedom of the Italian 
Republics \vould ne\'er have been \vritten, and the 
Church of Europe, absorbed in a new and irresistible 
Cæsarism, \vould have been brouRht to the condition 
of the Orthodox Russian Church ul1der the Tsars, or 



of Islam under the Sultans of Turkey." Even the 
German nation of to-day is deeply indebted to him as, 
from another reason, is that of Norway. 
Our Pontiff's ren1ains still lie in the crypt of 
St. Peter's, underneath the mighty Renaissance 
church; \vhen the t01l1b ,vas opened in A.D. 1607, 
they were found entire and arrayed in black vest- 
ments, together ,vith other pontifical insignia. During 
the reign of Pius IX. a proposal was made by certain 
English Catholics, \vith the cordial approval of his 
Holiness, to erect a monument to Adrian IV. in the 
Vatican Basilica up above. 
rA suitable site ,vas chosen and a beautiful design 
(no,v in the possession of Mr. Harhvell D. Grissell) 
prepared, but the project collapsed for ,vant of funds; 
ho\vever, this proposal has recently been again 
brought forward, tog ether with another for the 
translation of the red nlarble sarcophagus, containing 
the body itself and inscribed Hadrialllts Papa lIII. 
Perhaps SOl11e realization of the scheme will 
eventually and happily be effected by his compatriots 
in honour of that most illustrious of England's 
Cardinals, our only English Pope. 

Cardinal Boso Breakspear. 

DOM Boso BREAKSPEAR, a nephe\v of Adrian IV., 
had been a Benedictine monk of St. Alban's, but, 
upon his uncle's accession to the Papal Throne, not 
unnaturally proceeded to Rome, where he entered 
the service of the Curia. 



Apparently he was a man of no small merit in 
several \vays, and altogether one is little surprised to 
find that Pope Adrian, about the year 1155, created 
his favourite nephe\v Cardinal-Deacon by the title of 
SSe Cosmas and Damian. He \vas entrusted \\.ith 
some inlportant papal tnission to Portugal, and also 
placed in charge of the Castle of San Angelo. 
Upon the death of his uncle, both Alexander I I I. 
and Lucius III. are said to have owed their election 
chiefly to Cardinal Boso, who must therefore have 
exercised considerable influence in Rome. 
Pope Alexander raised him to the Cardinalitia] 
Priesthood of San Pudenziana, and he is supposed to 
have accompanied that Pontiff on his celebrated 
journey to Venice in A. D. I 177. The Cardinal's 
signature is attached to many Papal Bulls and other 
documents of this period, but little is known of his 
career. He won considerable fame as a poet, and 
is also stated to have written several theological 
treatises. Cardinal Boso Breakspear died in Rome, 
probably in the autumn of the year 1181. 

Cardinal Langton. 

THE next English Cardinal is perhaps the most 
famous of all-the hero of Magna Charta, and there- 
fore, in a special sense, the originator of our glorious 
Anglo-Saxon liberty. Our first Cardinal-Archbis- 
hop formed an exception to the rule in his having 



received the Red Hat before the Mitre, and in being 
allo,ved at that early period to reside away from 
STEPHEN LANGTON was born and, at first, educated 
in England, but afterwards proceeded to Paris, in 
order to continue his studies at this celebrated seat 
of learning. He became in time a professor himself, 
and lectured upon theology in its schools, where he 
won widespread fame. Prebendal stalls in the 
Cathedrals of Paris and York were presented to him, 
and at length he virtually became" Chancellor" of the 
nascent University by the Seine. Finally, the report 
of his general merit having reached Rome, Pope 
Innocent III. summoned him thither, and eventually 
created this distinguished Englishman Cardinal-Priest 
by the title of St. Chrysogonus in A.D. 1206. 
Then occurred the vacancy in the Primatial See of 
Canterbury, and both the irregular elections were 
upon appeal to Rome annulled by the Supreme Pontiff, 
who, exercising the plenitude of his power, appointed 
motu proprio to England's Primacy the most illustrious 
English Churchman of his day-Stephen Cardinal 
The Pope himself consecrated Langton Bishop at 
Viterbo on June the 17th, 1207, and duly invested 
him with the pallium, "taken from the body of 
Blessed Peter," as Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate 
of All England, and Legatus na/us ex officio of the 
Apostolic See. But England's shal11eless King now 
refused to acknowledge the ne,v Primate, whereupon 
Innocent eventually placed this country under an 
Cardinal Langton en route thither had to retire to 
Pontigny Abbey in France-the historic asylum of 
St. Thomas before and St. Edmund after him- 
which became his headquarters for the next five 
. He in vain, meanwhile, endeavoured to 



secure a peaceful settlement of this grave crisis, and 
in A.D. 1212, in desperation, returned to Rome, ac- 
companied by the Bishops of London and Ely : finally 
the Pope deposed our Royal tryant, with the startling 
result so well known to every student of history. 
The Cardinal Archbishop of Canterbury now pro- 
ceeded in triumph to his home country, where the 
prostrate monarch welcomed him in person. His 
first episcopal act in England was to absolve his 
Sovereign in the Chapter-house at Winchester on 
July 20th, 1213; afterwards he sang High Mass in 
the great Cathedral, giving King John the "kiss of 
peace," and thus happily terminating the dread 
A Protestant has well described the way in which 
the Cardinal at length assumed his new office :.- 
" Stranger to his native land as he had been for so 
many years, intimate friend of a foreign and hostile 
Sovereign (the King of France) as John charged him 
with being, faithful and submissive servant of a foreign 
Pontiff as he undoubtedly was, Stephen nevertheless 
fell at once, as if by the mere course of nature, into 
the old constitutional position of the Primate of All 
England, as keeper of the King's conscience and 
guardian of the nation's safety, temporal as well as 
spiritua1." (Dz'ct. Nat. Blog., vol. xxxii., p. 124.) 
This Cardinal's Primacy was from the first cast 
amid turbulent times, but he himself acted as general 
peacemaker, as advocate of the freedom of both Holy 
Church and of his fellow Englishmen. He it was 
\vho in reality secured the Great Charter of that 
freedom, and who, moreover, compelled King John to 
guarantee the Ecclesia AngIÙ:alla's immunity from 
Royal tyranny, so that it might be more directly 
governed by the Pope. There can be little doubt that 
this" "prince of all draughtsmen" drew up the "most 
famous of aU written enactmects" himself, from 



which have sprung the flourishing constitutions of 
both old England and ne\v Anlerica (U. S.A.) 
At the sanle' tinlC t his fearless Prinlate aftC'r,,-ards 
subnlitted to tenlporary suspension by the Roman 
Pontiff rather than execute \\-hat appeared to him 
an unjust COnl111and against the ban)ns, if not the 
Charter itself. l-Iowever, he finally returned in 
triunlph from Rome, \vhere he had attended the fourth 
Lateran Council, to Canterbury, \vith the favour of 
the new Pope, I-Ionorius III., in A.D. 1218. 
In accordance \vith a Papal mandate, "his Grace" 
re-crowned the youthful Henry I I I. King in West- 
minster Abbey on Whit-Sunday, 1220, and at the same 
tilne published the Papal Bull canonizing St. Hugh of 
Lincoln. Then, upon July the 7th in this year, 
Cardinal Langton presided at the nlagnificent 
ceremony of the translation of the Relics of his 
martyred predecessor) St. Thomas à Becket-our 
glorious champion of the Church's liberties-from the 
crypt of Canterbury Cathedral to a splendid new 
shrine in the choir. The King, the Archbishop of 
Rheims (Primate of France), the Papal Nuncio 
(Pandulf, Bishop of Norwich), the great Justiciar 
Hubert de Burgh, and a brilliant assembly thronged 
Lanfranc's Norman cathedral; even England had 
never yet beheld so superb a pageant as she did upon 
this historic festival day. 
Shortly after\vards the Cardinal Primate proceeded 
again to Rome "on business of the realm and the 
Church," taking with him portions of the "holy 
blissful" Martyr's relics. These he presented to the 
Sovereign Pontiff, and very probably they are no\v 
en shined in the present Catholic church at Canterbury 
once nlore-a return gift fronl Rome. 
As Papal Legate ex oJIicio, he upon this occasion 
petitioned the Holy Father that all assumption of 
111etropolitan dignity by the Archbishop of York in the 



Province of Canterbury should be again forbidden, 
that the Papal claim of (, provision" should never be 
exercised t\vice for the san1e benefice, and that during 
his o\vn lifetime no Legate a laiere should reside in 
England. Pope Honorius granted all three requests 
and asked Pandulf to resign his legation. 
Upon his return home Cardinal Langton summoned 
the famous Provincial Synod at Osney-" the 
ecclesiastical Runnymede "-which enacted several 
important decrees. In A.D. 1223 his Grace was again 
the leader and spokesman of the barons' demand for 
the confirmation of the Charter. He procured a Papal 
Bull declaring the young l{ing of age and journeyed 
to France in the hopes of securing the restoration of 
Normandy to Henry 111., according to the Treaty of 
Moreover, he persuaded the Pope to recall a new 
papal envoy with a ne\v papal demand, and he 
recovered from the I{ing certain privileges belonging 
to his See. At Canterbury he built afresh a large 
portion of the archiepiscopal palace, \\7hich has lately 
been reconstructed on its original site. Shortly 
before his death Langton introduced the Franciscan 
and Dominican friars into England, in admiration of 
their evangelization of the poor. We are told that he 
was even the originator, l:nter alt.a, of lighthouses, and 
their modern headquarters, (, Trinity House," is the 
direct descendant of his Guild for this beneficial 
In the year I 228 this great English Cardinal died, 
and Pope Honorius thereupon declared that "the 
custodian of the earthly paradise of Canterbury, 
Stephen of happy memory, a man pre-eminently 
imbued with the gifts of kno\vledge and supernatural 
grace, has been called, as \ve hope and believe, to 
the joy and rest of Paradise above." He ,vas 
buried in St. 
1ichael's Chapel in his Cathedral, 



,vhere his body after\vards rested under the A1tar 
itself-in fact he ,vas popularly esteemed a Saint. 
The plain stone coffin, no\v half under the wall, is 
pointed out to every visitor, though it is doubtful 
whether it contains his remains. 
Cardinal Langton was the leading theologian of his 
day, and a renowned commentator of the Holy 
Scriptures; it was he who divided the Bible into 
chapters-" he coted the Bible at Parys and marked 
the chapitres." A popular historian as ,veil as a 
poet, his Grace advocated the use of the vernacular 
(Norman-French), and \-vas the first to introduce it 
in a legal docunlent instead of Latin. 
Stephen Cardinal Langton ,vas indeed at once a 
sterling Catholic and a sterling patriot; for truly 
c, the land of his birth needs no other proof of his 
loyalty to her than the Great Charter of her freedom.' J 

Cardinal Curzon. 

MRAN\VHILE another Englishman had been admitted 
into the Sacred College: this was ROBERT CURZON, 
(alias Curson, de Courçon, etc.), an Oxford man and, 
later, a Canon of Notre Dame, Paris. 
In the year 1212, Pope Innocent III. appointed this 
distinguished Parisian scholar, in reward for his \vork 
there, Cardinal, and assig 
1ed San Stephano on the 
CreHan Hi}] as his titular church. After\vards he 
,vas created Apostolic Delegate to England, and then 
Legate a la/ere to France. 



Cardinal Curzon is chiefly noted as having practi- 
cally been the founder of Paris University, itself 
perhaps the first of Universities in the modern sense 
of that word. In 1205 he had suggested to the 
French Kingthe advisability of uniting and concentra- 
ting the different "schools" of learning in one place 
under the title UIlz"versitas Lz"terarum; this learned 
Cardinal also secured the introduction here of the 
faculties of Law and Medicine. In 12 II, his former 
fellow-student, Pope Innocent, granted its corporate 
charter, and thus was founded the famous University 
of Paris. 
After preaching the contemporary Crusade, and 
attempting to enact various reforms in the Gal1ican 
Church, not \\,ithout incurring the papal verdict of 
arbitrariness, Cardinal Curzon was sent by Pope 
Honorius III. to accompany the Crusaders of 1218, 
and died a romantic death at Damietta in Egypt. 

Cardinal Somercote. 

THE next English recipient of the Roman Purple was 
ROBERT SO:\fERCOTE, formerly a student at Bologna, 
and after\vards an official in the Papal Curia at 
Rome. In 1238, Pope Gregory IX. had raised him 
to Cardinalitial rank by the title of St. Eustachius, 
and throughout all his adversities found in Somercote 
a faithful follo\ver. Upon that Pontiff's death, this 
eminent English Cardinal \vas certainly a "papabile," 



or favourite candidate for the triple Tiara, as that 
voluble chronicler, Matthew Paris, has recorded. 
Ho\vever, Celestine IV. was eventually elected, and 
soon afterwards, on September 26th, J 241, Cardinal 
Somercote died; he was buried in the basilica of 
St. Chrysogonus in Rome. 



AFTER him there once more appears upon our list a 
Primate of All England; this was Friar ROBERT 
KILWARDBY, of the Order of St. Dominic. He had 
been a noted scholar at the Universities of Oxford and 
Paris, being especially renowned as a "grammarian." 
Some important grammatical and philosophical 
treatises appeared from his pen, but he abandoned a 
promising secular career in response to a vocation to 
enter the Dominican Order. At length a professed 
Friar Preacher, Kilwardby devoted his talents to the 
study of theology, more especially of the Sacred 
Scriptures-for instance, he divided the works of St. 
Augustine into chapters, as well as supplying an 
. analysis of their contents. 
Meanwhile in his Order he rose to the position of 
Prior, and finally was elected Provincial of the English 
Dominicans in A.D. 1261, \vhich office he held for 
eleven years. In A. D. 127 I, he was present at the 
General Chapter of the Dominican Order held at 
Montpellier, \vhere the learned English Provincial was 
described as "a great master of theology." 



Soon after\vards the Primatial See of Canterbury 
becalne vacant, and it is scarcely surprising that Pope 
Gregory X., l110tU proþrio, appointed this Dominican 
Prior to the Chair of England's Apostle, St. Austin. 
The Holy Father gave him leave to choose his 
consecrator, whereupon friar I{ihvardby at once 
invited the saintly Bishop Bytton of Bath and Wells 
-after\vards " canonized" in popular estiolation and 
specially invoked for relief from toothache-to raise 
him to the episcopate. The ceremony took place at 
Canterbury on February 26th, 1273; no less than 
twelve suffragan prelates assisted the consecrator in 
"the laying on of hands." Upon May the 8th, 
the Archbishop-elect received the pallium at Teynham, 
and \vas duly enthroned in his Cathedral in the 
follo\ving September. Archbishop Kilwardby was 
thus the first mendicant friar to be raised to an 
exalted position in this country, and one is glad to 
note that his Grace avoided any undue interference in 
As Prin1ate of All England this future Cardinal 
crowned our first l{ing Edward and his beloved 
Consort, good Queen Eleanor, in the historic Church 
of Westminster Abbey, then fresh from the builders' 
hands, on August the 19 th , 1274. 
In this same year our only Dominican Primate 
attended the ilicumenical Council of Lyons, \vhere 
he vigorously upheld the Papal prerogatives in 
quite "ultramontane" fashion, and \vitnessed \vith 
joy the temporary re-union of East and West. On 
June 16th, 1276, he \vas present at the translation of 
the Relics of the ne\v Saint Richard, ,vhose canoniza- 
tion cause he himself had championed, in Chichester 
Cathedral. It is said that, after several messages of 
warning, Archbishop Kihvardby actually excom- 
municated that famous Prince Llewelyn of Wales, 
for refusing to render his feudùl duties to King 



Ed\vard I.-if true, a somewhat severe and extreme 
This Primate was the munificent founder of the 
Dominican Friary in London, which has bequeathed 
its old name of Blackfriars to modern terminology 
there, and of which fragments have lately been dis- 
covered. He held several Synods as well as frequent 
visitations, and was noted for his personal sanctity 
and for his practical love of Christ's poor. However, 
after only five years' tenure of the Primacy, a still 
higher honour awaited him j for upon St. Gregory's 
Day, March the 12th, 1278, Pope Nicholas III. 
actually created his Grace of Canterbury Cardinal 
Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina. We can indeed 
gauge the contemporary English veneration for the 
.. Sacrosallcta Romalla Ecclesia," when here in the 
13th century we find a Primate of All England 
eagerly exchanging the temporalities of Canterbury 
for those of Porto and, moreover, bidding farewell to 
his native land in consequence. 
Cardinal Kilwardby took solemn leave of his 
suffragans, and unfortunately also took with him the 
ancient registers and judicial records of his See! 
Doubtless he intended to restore them, but being 
already aged and infirm, he died at Viterbo soon 
after reaching the CttrzOa in the year I279-not with- 
out alleged suspicions of having been poisoned; he 
was buried in the Dominican convent there. His 
successor at Canterbury, very appropriately a 
Franciscan friar, searched in vain for these price- 
less treasures, which were never recovered. 
This learned Dominican was a voluminous writer J 
and several of his treatises still remain, including one 
De Sacranzento Altaris; we are told that at the Pope's 
wish he wrote several letters trying to convert "the 
King of the Tartars "-whoever "his Majesty" may 
have been! 




Cardinal Hugh of Evesham. 

SOON after his death another of our countrymen 
received the Red Hat. HUGH OF EVESHAl\I ,vas a 
famous doctor, and about A.D. 1280 had been invited 
to Rome by Pope Martin IV. during the discussion 
of certain medical questions; shortly afterwards he 
was appointed private physician to the Holy Father. 
On l'vlarch 23rd, 1281, at Orvieto, "l\1aster Hugh" 
,vas created Cardinal-Priest of the Holy Roman 
Church by the title of San Lorenzo in Lucina, and 
spent the remaining six years of his life in the Eternal 

Cardinal Winterbourne. 

THEN, once more, an English Dominican friar en- 
tered the Sacred College, the Pope's "Privy Council": 
this was Fr. WALTER WINTERBOURNE, who appears 
to have graduated Doctor of Divinity at either Paris 
or Oxford. In A.D. 1290 he was elected Provincial 
of the English Friar-Preachers, in succession to 
vVilliam Macclesfield (also said by some \vriters to 
have been created Cardinal), and continued to hold 
this office for the next six years. After\vards \ve 
find Fr. Winterbourne appointed confessor to I{ing 
Edward I., whom in the year 1300 he accompanied on 
his Scotch campaign. 
The Dominican Pope, Benedict IX., having heard 
of his integrity and wisdom, on February 21st, 13 0 4, 




created Winterbourne Cardinal-Priest of Santa 
Sabina-the headquarters of their Order. The new 
Cardinal \vas still in Scotland \vith his Sovereign and, 
on April the 4th, King Ed\vard wrote from St. 
Andre\v's thanking the Supreme Pontiff: however, 
for the present, he could not spare his chaplain's 
valuable services at Court. 
But upon the ensuing death of Pope Benedict, 
Cardinal Winterbourne was allowed to proceed to 
I taly in order to take part in the Papal Conclave: 
Edward I. kindly comlnissioned the Spini of Florence 
to furnish him with a thousand marks to defray 
expenses. On November the 28th he reached 
Perusium, where ultimately Pope Clement V. \vas 
elected: next year, when on his way to join the new 
Pontiff at Lyons, our aged Cardinal departed this 
life at Genoa, and was buried in the Dominican 
Church there. 

Cardinal Jorz. 

A UNIQUE circumstance no\v occurred: for in this 
same year yet another English son of St. Dominic was 
forthwith raised to the Purple. THOMAS J ORZ (alias 
Joyce, and surnamed "Thomas the Englishman") 
was one of six brothers \vho all joined the Dominican 
Order, and two of whom were in succession Arch- 
bishops of Armagh. 
Fr. J orz is said to have studied both at Oxford 
and Paris, and to have been a fellow pupil with 
St. Thomas Aquinas of BI. Albertus l\1agnus. He 


himself afterwards lectured at Oxford, London 
and Paris, as a Friar Preacher: later he became 
Prior of their Oxford convent and eventually English 
Provincial-a post held by him for seven years ( 12 9 6 - 
13 0 3). He in this capacity attended General 
Chapters of his Order, at Marseilles in A.D. 1300, 
and at Cologne in 13 01 . 
Fr. J orz also succeeded Cardinal \Vinterbourne 
as confessor to King Ed\vard I., who sent him 
upon some Royal mission to Pope Clelnent V. at 
Lyons, in the year 1305. Here, on December the 
15 th , he \\Tas created Cardinal-Priest of the Holy 
Roman Church by the san1e appropriate title of 
Santa Sabina. 
The new Cardinal henceforth apparently resided at 
the Papal Court, where he acted as Proctor for 
two Kings of England, viz., Edwards I. and I I. 
He frequently received communications from his 
Sovereign-for example, on May 6th, 1307, Edward I. 
wrote requesting him to urge on the canonization 
cause of that great Bishop, Grosseteste of Lincoln, 
and upon April 17th, 1308, King Edward II. made 
a similar request on behalf of the late Bishop Thomas 
de Cantelupe of Hereford. 
The Pontiff entrusted him \vith several important 
judicial and administrative matters, and, when on his 
\vay as Papal Envoy to the Emperor Henry VII., 
Cardinal J orz somewhat suddenly died at Grenoble 
on December the 13th, 1310. His body was after- 
wards conveyed to England and interred in his old 
conventual home at Oxford. 
Among this Cardinal's theological works is said to 
have been the treatise De COllceptione Beatae 
Vz'rgÙds, sometimes assigned to the Church's 
Dominican" Angelic Doctor" (St. Thomas Aquinas). 


Cardinal Langham. 

THE next English name upon Rome's list is that of 
a Benedictine-Dom SIMON LANGHAM, who had been 
successively monk, Prior, and Lord Abbot of West- 
Evidently Abbot Langham, during the next decade, 
displayed both virtue and ability to no ordinary 
extent, for his subsequent promotions were many and 
rapid. His skill in ruling Westminster Abbey led to 
his appointment as Lord Treasurer of England in 
A.D. 1360, while two years later a Papal Bull 
appointed him to the vacant See of Benedictine Ely. 
In the following year Langham was created Lord 
Chancellor of England, and in this connection it is 
noticeable that he opened Parliament by delivering 
the speech from the \voolsack, for the first time, in 
In A,D. 1366, the Primatial Throne of St. Augustine 
became vacant, and Benedictine Canterbury now very 
appropriately received as her pontiff this illustrious 
son of St. Benet. Upon November 4th, 1366, his 
Grace was invested with the palliurn at Royal 
Westminster, and on Lady Day follo\ving \vas 
enthroned in his Cathedral amid all the magnificence 
of our Sarum ritual. 
As Primate, Dom Langham vigorously opposed 
the prevalent abuse of pluralities as well as the 
heresies and the "socialism" of Wiclif. He had not 
held the See of Canterbury for two years \vhen a 
still higher honour was conferred; for on Septem- 
ber 27th, 1368, Bl. Urban V. (himself a Benedictine) 
created Archbishop Langham Cardinal-Priest of the 
Holy Roman Church by the title of St. Sixtus. 
The new Cardinal forthwith, indeed of necessity, 



resigned the Primacy of All England with its rich 
temporalities, and obtained, not ,vithout difficulty, 
the Royal sanction to leave his native land for 
A vignon. This \vas the disastrous period of a 
Francophil and divided Papacy: Langham reached 
Avignon in 1369, where he ,vas kno\vn as "the 
Cardinal of Canterbury." After\vards he paid a State 
visit to his home country, with little success, on behalf 
of peace; in 1374, the Chapter of Canterbury actually 
re-.elected Cardinal Langham to the Primacy, but in 
Mean,vhile the Holy Father had conferred a signal 
honour upon this English Prince of the Church: for 
in July, 1373, he was raised to the exalted rank of 
Cardinal-Bishop of Praeneste (Palestrina). When the 
Papal Court ,vas enabled to return to Rome, Cardinal 
Langham obtained permission from Pope Gregory XI. 
henceforth to reside in England. He had intended to 
supervise the completion of Westminster's Abbey 
l'YIinster, but unfortunately sudden death put an end 
to these plans, upon the eve of his departure, in 
A.D. 1376. 
By his dying request, our Benedictine Cardinal was 
buried in St. Benet's Chapel in the exquisite Church 
of his old conventual home: there his tomb still 
remains, the oldest and most remarkable of all its 
ecclesiastical monuments. Cardinal Langham be- 
queathed the whole of his estate, \vorth about 
;6 200,000, to\vards the building fund of his beloved 
Westminster Abbey; the nave, a portion of the 
cloisters, the Abbot's house, etc., \vere thereby 
completed, and he himself has thus earned the proud 
title of its" second founder." This Cardinal ,vas a 
great administrator, a man of marked ability as \vell 
as of holy character; he ,vas also, we may notice, the 
first to establish technical schools in England. 



Cardinal Easton. 

HIS EngIish successor in the Roman Purple \vas 
curiously another Benedictine monk- Dom ADAM 
EASTON. He had received the black habit of St. Benet 
at the Cathedral Priory of Norwich, and afterwards 
studied at Oxford: here he acquired great reputation 
as a Greek and Hebrew scholar. Afterwards Dom 
Easton left England for A vignon, probably in the 
train of Cardinal Langham, and received some 
appointment zOn curt.a. He proceeded to Rome with 
the Papal Court, and was at length raised to the 
Purple by Pope Urban VI., probably in A.D. 138 I, as 
Cardinal-Priest of St. Cecilia. 
Soon afterwards Easton was nominated, by Papal 
provision, Dean of York Minster: as an example of 
the grave abuses in this direction, we find he was the 
third non-resident Cardinal in succession to hold this 
In 1384, the real Pope, Urban VI., transferred the 
seat of his curtOa to Nocera in Umbria; then occurred 
the famous revolt of certain Cardinals against his 
cruel despotism, which only ended in their o\vn 
destruction. Our English Cardinal escaped with his 
life, through the intervention of King Richard I 10' 
after suffering torture and imprisonment as well as 
degradation from the Cardinalate itselfo 
However, upon the accession of Pope Boniface IX. 
in A. D. 1389, one of his first acts was to restore this 
English Prince of Holy Church to his honours. 
Apparently Cardinal Ea 5ton was now allo\ved to 
return to his native country, but eventually journeyed 
back to Rome, attracted by its immortal spell. There 
he died in 1397, and was buried in his titular Church: 
the Cardinal's tomb, near St. Cecilia's Shrine, and his 



temporary prison at Genoa, are objects of much 
interest to English pilgrims. Unfortunately his 
learned theological treatises have all perished, but 
the Church's Office for our Blessed Lady's Visitation \ 
is said to have been composed by Adaln Cardinal 

Cardinal Repyngdon. 

THE next century brings us to another monastic 
Cardinal- Dom PHILIP REPYNGDON, who was born in 
the second half of the fourteenth century, and was 
ed,ucated at Oxford. He afterwards joined the Austin 
or "Black" Canons Regular-being professed at 
their Abbey of St. Mary de Pré in Leicester. 
Meanwhile the unity of our holy religion in this 
land was being disturbed by the false teachings of 
the heretical priest, John Wielif, and his followers. 
Unfortunately Dom Repyngdon ,vas beguiled into 
approving Wiclifs erroneous religious and social 
tenets, and even began to promulgate the latter's 
heresy against the Most I-Ioly Sacrament of the Altar 
from the pulpit. 
At length he became WicIifs most prominent 
supporter, and about the same time actually incepted 
as Doctor of Divinity at Oxford. But ,vhen the 
University authorities heard of this they ,vere 
naturally most indignant, and at the "Council of 
ckfriars" held in London in A.D. 1382, the 
Chancellor of Oxford suspended Repyngdon, \vho in 
vain appealed to his Royal patron, John of Gaunt, 



Duke of Lancaster. Finally the unorthodox monk 
,vas censured and at length excommunicated by the 
Primate of All England, Archbishop Courtenay, in 
the following July. 
This grave crisis happily caused Dom Repyngdon 
to reflect upon his errors, \vith most happy result; 
for within a few months we find him truly repentant 
and receiving Holy Church's absolution from the 
Primate, ,vho by a formal brief thereupon restored 
him to his former dignities. Afterwards he publicly 
abjured and solemnly recanted his heretical tenets in 
a Convocation of the Province of Canterbury held at 
Oxford itself. 
Henceforth Dom Repyngdon's orthodoxy was 
unquestionable and unquestioned; like the great 
Apostle of the Gentiles, after his conversion he 
became the zealous opponent of his former errors and 
a champion of the Catholic Faith. 
A man of brilliant attainments, his promotions in 
after years were quite remarkable. In A.D. 1394 he 
,vas elected Abbot of Leicester and superior of his 
old conventual home, ,vhere apparently he had spent 
the last twelve years to the intense edification of his 
fello\v monks. Three years later he was created 
Chancellor of his Alma Mater, the University of 
Oxford; in A.D. 1400 he was again elected its 
Chancellor, and held this office until the year 1402. 
Abbot Repyngdon was honoured with the intimate 
friendship of King Henry IV., who appointed him 
one of his chaplains, and \vho chose him as his 
confessor-in itself a great tribute to the Abbot's 
holiness and \visdom. 
When the important See of Lincoln became vacant, 
it is not therefore surprisL.1g that the name inserted 
in the Royal cOllgé d' élire for primary consideration 
at the capitular election was that of Philip Repyngdon, 
O.S.A. '[he Chapter duly forwarded their petition to 



Rome, and upon November 19th, 1404, the Sovereign 
Pontiff issued a bull of provision creating Abbot 
Repyngdon Bishop of Lincoln. On the follo,ving 
l\farch the 29th, at Canterbury, he received episcopal 
consecration at the hands of Archbishop Arundel. 
\Ve can faintly realize the splendour of his ne'v 
position j his magnificent Cathedral itself, with its 
three Inatchless to\vers and its splendid internal 
enrichments, must have been indeed, as it were, a 
vision of the "Cælestis urbs Jerusalem," \vhile the 
diocese of Lincoln was then of enormous extent- 
including, for instance, the to,vn of Leicester, Bishop 
Repyngdon's former residence. He ,vas now iPso 
facto a peer of the realm, and is said to have exercised 
great influence over the King. 
Above all, as Bishop he vigorously opposed and 
suppressed in his flock the heresies of \Viclif and the 
ne,v Lollard sect, with all the zeal of a convert. At 
the same time he is stated to have eluded carrying 
out the vindictive decree issued by the Council of 
Constance, ordering the exhumation and burning of 
\Vic1ifs corpse; for the heresiarch had been stricken 
down by paralysis actually ,vhen saying l'Yfass in 
honour of the glorious martyr, St. Thomas of 
Canterbury, in his parish church of Lutterworth, on 
Decem ber the 29th, 1384. 
Within a few years yet another and a far higher 
honour a\vaited Dr. Repyngdon j for on September 
the 18th, A.D. 1408, Pope Gregory XII. besto,ved the 
Red Hat itself upon the distinguished Bishop of 
Lincoln, ,,,,ho ,vas then created Cardinal-Priest (or 
probably Deacon) of the Holy Roman Church by the 
title of SSe N ereus and Achilles. This ancient 
basilica is at present one of the most interesting 
churches in Rome. 
Perhaps one ought to state that, on account of 
Pope Gregory's deposition, festol ation, and final 


resignation of the Supreme Pontificate, certain 
\vriters have disputed the validity of Cardinal 
Repyngdon's creation. Ho\vever, this supposition 
is extremely improbable, and accordingly in him \ve 
find our first English example of a Bishop upon 
receiving the Roman Purple being allowed to retain 
his See, although probably he paid a lengthy visit to 
Rome after his creation. 
But in the year 1419 Cardinal Repyngdon resigned 
the Bishopric of Lincoln for reasons never quite 
known. Perhaps this extreme action was owing to 
the new King Henry the Fifth's objections to the 
famous Prince-Bishop Beaufort of Winchester also 
receiving the Red Hat-for there were already three 
English Cardinals at this time! viz., the Bishops of 
Durham, Salisbury, and Lincoln. 
Anyhow the I-Ioly Father formally accepted his 
resignation upon February the 1st, 1420, and hence- 
forth the good Cardinal lived in retirement-may he 
not very likely have resumed his monastic life as an 
Austin Canon ?-until his death, which occurred in the 
year 1424. Cardinal Repyngdon was, doubtless at 
his own request, buried in the Cathedral of Lincoln 
and near the tOlnb of his great predecessor, Bishop 
" His Grace" made several munificent bequests to 
the University Library at Oxford. He ,vas in his 
day a reno\vned preacher, and several of his printed 
sermons are still preserved here in the Bodleian 


3 1 

Cardinal Langley. 

IN the year 1411, hvo more English prelates were 
created Cardinals: these ,vere the Bishop-Palatine of 
Durham and the Bishop of peerless Sarum. THOMAS 
LANGLEY ,vas a distinguished Cambridge ecclesiastic 
,vho, in A.D. 1405, had been created Lord Chancellor of 
England and also elected Archbishop of York. Ho,v- 
ever, despite a Royal petition, Pope Innocent VII., 
indignant at the murder of Archbishop Scrape, 
annulled this election and " provided" Langley 
instead to the Palatine See of Durham. In 1409 
this pious prelate attended the Council of Pisa in great 
state, and hvo years after,vards Pope John XXIII. 
created him and Bishop Hallam Cardinals-perhaps 
to obtain England's support in his various difficulties. 
Owing to the absence of the Papal Court from Rome 
and the disturbed contemporary state of affairs, 
neither of them ,vas assigned any titular church in 
the Petrine City. 
Our popular \varrior King, Henry V., employed 
Cardinal Langley as his ambassador on behalf of 
peace "vith France, and in 1417 he again ,vas 
entrusted ,vith the Great Seal. This ecclesiastical 
prince helped secure the Treaty of Durham, and 
subsequently entertained in his episcopal city the 
King and Queen of Scotland. 
At the coronation of Henry VI. Cardinal Langley 
led the youthful King up the Abbey, and ahvays took 
a prominent part in public affairs. Upon his death 
he 'vas buried in the famous" Galilee" of his splendid 
Cathedral, ,vhere the marble altar-tomb still covers 
his remains, and adjoins the desolated Shrine of 
St. Bede. 
This Cardinal \vas a great benefactor both to the 

3 2 


Cathedral and the City of Durham, and also to the 
Universities. For instance, at the former, besides 
completing the exquisite Galilee Chapel, he helped its 
Benedictine community finish the cloisters, while he 
founded two Schools on his palace green-one for 
" grammar" and the other for plainsong. 

Cardinal Hallam. 

AFTER holding various preferments, ROBERT HALLA:\f 
had, in A.D. 1403, been elected Chancellor of Oxford 
University, but later on apparently resigned e\'ery- 
thing in order to reside in Rome. Upon June 22nd, 
1407, Pope Gregory XII. appointed him to the See 
of Salisbury and himself consecrated him Bishop at 
Hallam was one of the English ambassadors at 
Pisa, and after\vards received the Red Hat from 
John XXIII., as already related. At the Council of 
Constance, summoned for the purpose of ending the 
disastrous Papal schism, Cardinal Hallam again 
represented England, and \vas attended by an 
imposing cavalcade of sixty-four horse. Here he 
eagerly championed reform and moderation-indeed, 
by his vigorous public denunciations of that wicked 
Pontiff, he partially caused John's historic flight; 
subsequently he took a leading part in the conciliar 
Cardinal Hallam is said to have upheld the Gallican 
doctrine of the supremacy of General Councils over 
the ROlnan Pontiff. In the year 1417 he died at the 


Castle of Gottlieben, and was buried, amid a scene of 
great pomp, in the Cathedral of Constance-in the 
presence of the Emperor himself and most of the 
Council. The magnificent brass, probably engraved 
in England, \vhich \vas after\\Tards placed over his 
tomb, still remains in situ. 

Cardinal Beaufort. 

THE next English Cardinal \vas not only a Prince of 
the Church but also a Prince of this realm. HENRY 
BEAUFORT was the subsequently legitimized son of 
J ohn-of-Gaunt by Katharine S\vynford, and therefore 
a grandson of King Ed\vard I I I. 
In 1398 he was appointed by papal provision to 
the See of Lincoln, and in the following year was 
elected Chancellor of Oxford University. Upon the 
accession of his half-brother, King Henry IV., to the 
throne, Bishop Beaufort rapidly rose in position and 
influence; in 1403 he \vas created Lord Chancellor of 
England and next year, again by papal provision, 
translated to the important See of Winchester. 
Under King Henry V. Beaufort played a still more 
prominent part in public affairs: at the Council of 
Constance, as a zealous" Ultramontane," he opposed 
the Gallican party, and was the chief instrument in a 
preliminary election of Pope l\1artin V., though he 
himself probably \vas a papahile. This patriotic 
prelate lent Henry V. vast sums for his "jingo" 
French war, and during the miu0rityof Henry VI. 



again held the Great Seal-indeed at one time he 
practically governed the country. His loyalty and 
\visdom formed a sharp contrast to the actions of 
his famous enemy, the Duke of Gloucester. 
Finally, after long delays, Beaufort was created a 
Cardinal-Priest by the title of St. Eusebius on 
May 24th, 1426, by Pope Martin. At the same time 
he was also appointed Legate a latere to Germany, 
Hungary, and Bohemia, in order that he might 
oppose the Hussite heresy: his personal bravery in 
the crusaders' field \vas most remarkable. Despite 
the anti-papal machinations of Gloucester and 
others, this great ecclesiastic continued to exer- 
cise beneficial influence at home in the Council of the 
realm and upon important diplomatic matters abroad. 
On December 17th, 1431, Cardinal Beaufort 
crowned the youthful Henry VI. " King of France JJ 
in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris. Upon the 
death of Bedford his political position in England 
became supreme, and he earnestly attempted to 
secure a general pacification. 
Upon his Grace's death at W olvesey Palace, he 
was buried in his Cathedral of Winchester, where the 
magnificent chantry with its interesting effigy of the 
Cardinal-in his Red Hat and cappa magna-still 
remains, though despoiled of its former enrichments. 
Cardinal Beaufort was a splendid example of that 
dangerous personality, the ecclesiastical statesman: 
he was a munificent public benefactor-for instance, 
in his Cathedral city he founded the Almshouses at 
St. Cross, where another effigy of this Cardinal may 
still be seen. Despite his faults, in him England lost 
indeed a patriotic and constitutional leader, Holy 
Church a loyal son, and Christ's poor a true friend. 


Cardinal Kempe. 

WITHIN a few years another of our countrymen wore 
the Roman Purple-once more a Primate of All 
England, who also held the rare distinction of having 
been Archbishop, first of York, and then of Canter- 
] OHN KEMPE \vas once a Fello\v of Merton College, 
Oxford, and after\vards Archdeacon of Durham. 
During the reign of Henry V. he frequently acted as 
Royal Envoy in diplomatic affairs, \vas present at 
Agincourt, and subsequently was created Chancellor 
of Normandy. 
In A.D. 1419 Kempe was appointed Bishop of 
Rochester; in 1421 he was translated by Pope 
Martin V., first to the See of Chichester, then to that 
of London, and finally, in A.D. 1426, to the Arch- 
bishopric of York and the N orthern Primacy. 
Moreover, in this same year he was also appointed 
Lord Chancellor of England, and held the Great 
Seal until A.D. 1432, \vhen he resigned it. His 
Grace, amid those days of strife and disorder, 
strenuously \vorked for peace and acted as English 
Ambassador both at the Council of Basle and the 
Congress of Arras. We may note that he incurred 
some odium by advocating the abandonment by our 
English Sovereign of that usurped title, "King of 
France. " 
Finally, in December, 1439, Pope Eugenius IV. 
created the Archbishop of York Cardinal-Priest of the 
Holy Ronlan Church by the title of Santa Balbina. 
At first his Grace, remembering the Prince-Cardinal 
Beaufort's trials, somewhat hesitated, but \Vas soon 
persuaded by King Henry VI. himself to accept the 
Red Hat. 

3 6 


Then occurred the memorable submission of our 
Primate Chichele to the Papal decision that even in 
his o\vn Province he, as merely Archbishop, must 
rank after the Cardinals pf York and Winchester. 
In the year 1450 the former prelate \vas again 
appointed Lord ChanceIlor of the realm. 
As \ve have seen, Cardinal Kempe's career had 
already been one of almost unprecedentedly brilliant 
promotions, both in Church and State, but still further 
honours a,vaited him. For in A.D. 1452 the Cardinal 
\vas translated from the archiepiscopal See of York to 
that of Canterbury-a very unique distinction-and 
thus to the Primacy of All England. The Papal Bull 
of appointment was dated July the 21st, and his Grace 
received his new pallium at Fulham on the following 
September 24th. At the same time Pope Nicholas 
V., as a signal mark of esteem, actually created a 
special Cardinal Bishopric, by separating the See of 
Santa Rufina from that of Porto, and raised our 
illustrious Primate to the exalted rank of its Cardinal 
Bishop. .. 
At this time the renowned See of Canterbury was 
practically a Patriarchate in all but name, while this 
g-reat and good prelate was now Cardinal Bishop, 
Papal Legate, both natus and, for a time, de latere, 
Primate as \veIl as Chancellor of England, and indeed 
held an alt0gether supreme position. It is touching, 
in this respect, to note that Cardinal Kempe did not 
forget his native village-Wye, in Kent-\vhere he 
founded a college of secular priests, a grammar 
school and a chantry, and also built a splendid parish 
However, this Prince of Holy Church only held the 
Primacy for two years o\ving to his death in A.D. 1454, 
when truly" full of years and honours." Upon his 
tomb in Canterbury Cathedral, surmounted by its 
remarkable \vooden canopy, is engraved the follo\ving 


inscription: "Hic jacet reverendissimus in Xto. 
Pater et Dominus dñs J ohes Kempe tituli Stæ. Rufinæ 
sacrosanctæ Romanæ EccIesiæ Episcopus Cardinalis 
Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis. . . . .J' 

Cardinal Bourchier. 

THE next Englishman to enter the Sacred College 
of Cardinals \vas also the next Archbishop of 
Lord THOMAS BOURCHIER was a son of the Earl of 
E\ve, whose \vife \vas a Plantagenet, and \vas thus the 
great-grandson of King Ed\vard III. When quite a 
young man he became Bishop of Worcester and 
ChanceIlor of Oxford University. In the year 1443 
he \vas translated to the See of Ely by Papal Bull 
dated December the 20th. 
Finally, upon the death of the Cardinal Primate, 
the Council recommended as his successor in the 
Primatial Cathedra of St. Augustine this "Right 
Reverend Lord" Thomas Bourchier-in cOlnpliance, 
too, \vith a petition from the House of Commons 
setting forth "his great merits, virtues, and the great 
blood that he is of." His Grace received the pallium 
from the representative of Pope Calixtus III. in 
Canterbury Cathedral upon January 25th, L-1-55, amid 
the customary scene of ecclesiastical splendour. 
In this same year the ne\v Archbishop of Canterbury 
\vas appointed Lord Chancel10r of England, and 


3 8 


thereupon vainly endeavoured to secure peace between 
the rival Lancastrian and Y orkist factions. Upon 
the COlnmencement of the disastrous Wars of the 
Roses, the Primate resigned the Great Seal, and after 
the final Y orkist victory crowned the Duke of York 
King in A.D. 1461, under the title of Edward IV. 
Apparently in 1467 the Roman Pontiff created 
Archbishop Bourchier Cardinal-Priest of St. Cyriacus 
in Thermis, but, in response to a royal request and 
contemporary disorder, reserved the nomination t"n 
petto. At length, after various delays, in the year 
1473, a new Pope, Sixtus IV., sent the English 
Primate his Red Hat, which reached Lam beth on 
l\lay the 31st. 
Cardinal Bourchier was a distinguished patron of 
literature, education, and the fine arts; he assisted 
Caxton in starting his original printing press, and 
,vas himself the first to introduce its use into his old 
University. At Canterbury his Grace more than once 
received his Sovereign upon the occasion of the 
latter's pilgrimages to the Shrine of the glorious Martyr 
St. Thomas. In 1468 he is said to have entertained 
another distinguished pilgrim, viz., an Oriental 
Patriarch, probably Peter I I. of Antioch. In after 
years the aged Cardinal-Primate had within a few 
months to place the Crown of England upon the head, 
first of Richard III. and then of Henry VII., in 
Westminster Abbey. 
Very fittingly the public career of a great peace- 
maker ,vas closed by his officiating at the marriage of 
the ne\v Lancastrian Sovereign \vith the Princess 
Elizabeth of York, upon January the 18th, 1486, 
\,,-hereby the Red and the White Roses were blended 
in happy union and the terrible civil war was at length 
Then, on the following April the 6th, Cardinal 
Bourchier passed away to eternal life, after an 



episcopate of over half-a-century and the longest 
Primacy in our annals. His body still rests in its 
grey marble tomb in the choir of Canterbury 
Cathedral-now alas! in other hands. 

Cardinal Morton. 

AGAIN, for the third time in succession, England's 
next Cardinal was the new Archbishop of Canterbury. 
JOHN MORTON in his younger days was a distinguished 
ecclesiastical lawyer and an ardent Lancastrian. He 
had, moreover, been Chancellor to the unfortunate 
Edward, Prince of Wales, and faithfuIIy follo\ved 
brave Queen Margaret and her son during their 
historic \vanderings. Ho\vever, after Tewkesbury 
l\lorton had to submit to the victor, and, his attainder 
having been reversed, he no\v became a Y orkist 
" convert." 
Cardinal Bourchier was ever his kind patron, and 
he eventually became Bishop of Benedictine Ely. 
During the Protectorate of Richard, Duke of 
Gloucester, he suffered imprisonment for supporting 
poor little King Edward V., despite a petition from his 
alma 11tater, Oxford University, for the release of 
"her dearest son." However, the \vily Bishop 
managed to escape to Flanders, and no\v vigorously 
assisted the Lancastrians: indeed, the Earl of 
Richmond probably escaped being captured, if not 
actually assassination itself, through his timely 

4 0 


Upon ascending St. Edward's throne as King 
Henry VI!., his Majesty summoned Bishop 
back to England, \vhere the latter soon became his 
trusty adviser. Thus in his "Utopia JJ Sir Thomas 
More relates how "the King depended much on his 
(Morton's) counsels, and the government seemed to 
be chiefly supported by him." To this astute Bishop 
of Ely probably was due the ultimate success of the 
Lancastrian and the Royal marriage itself with the 
Princess Elizabeth of York, daughter and heiress of 
Edward IV. 
Upon October the 6th, 1486, Morton succeeded 
Cardinal Bourchier as Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Primate of All England, and Legate of the Apostolic 
See: in the following year his Grace was also created 
Lord Chancellor of the Realn1. In this latter position 
his official speeches at the opening of Parliament are 
stated to have been the first to foreshadow our modern 
constitutional government, while as Primate he \vorked 
hard at certain clerical reforms. Popularly he is 
chiefly noted for the "Morton's Fork JJ device- 
probably a fable, as it appears that in reality he did 
his best to restrain Henry's avarice. 
At last, in the year 1493, at the l{ing's request, 
that wicked person, Pope Alexander VI., created 
Archbishop Morton Cardinal-Priest of the Holy 
Roman Church by the title of Sta. Anastasia. T\vo 
years afterwards the good Cardinal was elected 
Chancellor of Oxford University, and in A.D. 1500- 
just before the opening of the dreadful sixteenth 
century-he departed this life. 
Cardinal Morton had a great devotion to the famous 
Shrine of our Blessed Lady in the" undercroft" or crypt 
of Canterbury Cathedral, which he had much em- 
bellished, and, by his o\\'n special request, his body 
was there interred "coram z1nagz'ne": indeed, to 
secure this, he had actually erected his o\vn monu- 


4 1 

mental effigy, no\v terribly mutilated, close to the 
shrine during his lifetime. It is painful to have to 
relate that in the 18th century the Cardinal's remains 
\vere exhumed and treated \vith shameful indignity, 
while the \vrecked Shrine itself is a most distressing 
This great Primate \vas an ardent patron of litera- 
ture: thus Blessed Thomas More, who kne\v the 
Cardinal intimately as a member of his household, has 
paid a valuable tribute to his memory in this and other 
His Grace \vas a truly munificent builder as ,veil as 
a clever architect and engineer. At Ely he cut the 
famous trench across the Fen country, still kno\vn as 
"l\Iorton's Dyke. " At Oxford he repaired the 
Divinity School and helped to rebuild St. Mary's 
Church; at Lambeth Palace he erected the present 
gate-house. Above all, at Canterbury he vigorously 
assisted Prior Goldstone II., O. S.B., in the completion 
of his Cathedral's glorious central to\ver. 

Cardinal Bainbridge. 

AFTER three successive Archbishops of Canterbury 
the next English Cardinals \vere hvo successive 
Archbishops of York! an eloquent piece of testimony 
as to \vhether the old English Church was " Roman 
Catholic" or not. 
CHRISTOPHER BAINBRIDGE \vas formerly Provost of 
Queen's College, Oxford; in the year 1503 he became 

4 2 


Dean of York and in 1505 of Windsor, in the folIow- 
ing year Master of the Rolls, and in 1507 was 
consecrated Prince-Bishop of Durham. Finally, by a 
papal bun dated September 12th, 1508, Bainbridge 
\vas translated to the archiepiscopal See of York and 
the northern Primacy. His Grace \vas distinctly a 
political ecclesiastic, and acted as King Henry the 
Eighth's ambassador to Pope Julius II., by whon1 he 
was created Cardinal-Priest of St. Praxedis on March 
the loth, 151 I, at Ravenna. 
This bellicose Pontiff, during whose reign a semi- 
pagan Renaissance had begun to intensify the cor- 
ruptions of contemporary Rome, at once despatched 
the new Cardinal-Archbishop of York as his general 
to besiege Ferrara! He also appointed this "Primate 
of England 7J Papal Legate a latere in the States of 
the Church. 
Cardinal Bainbridge unfortunately remained in Italy 
instead of returning to his Archdiocese; his Grace 
acted as Henry's agent Ùz curia Romalla and 
vigorously opposed France and French influence. A 
certain amount of mystery surrounds his premature 
death; but apparently he was poisoned by an insane 
Italian servant, who after\vards committed suicide in 
His body was interred in the Church, dedicated to 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, belonging to the old 
English Hospice for pilgrims ad lÙnina Apostolorum- 
now the English Seminary College in the Via di 
Monserrato, Rome. Here the tomb, with its recum- 
bent effigy of this unpopular Cardinal of York, 
vested in Renaissance pontificals, forms an interesting 
link with the past. 



Cardinal Wolsey. 

THERE no,v succeeded Cardinal Bainbridge both in 
the Sacred Purple anù in the See of York one of the 
most famous personages in English history. 
THOl\f.\S \V OLSEY \vas the brilliant son of an I ps,vich 
tradesman \vho, through the democratic possibilities 
of Christ's I{ingdom on earth, rose to dazzling heights 
of ecclesiastical and temporal splendour. 
He \vas once Bursar of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
where he superintended the erection of its exquisite 
to\\'er. Upon becoming Court Chaplain to Henry VII. 
and, again, to Henry VIII., his promotions \vere 
rapid. First of all Wolsey ,vas appointed Dean of 
Lincoln in 1508, then Canon of Windsor, and after- 
wards Dean of York; in A.D. 1514 he \vas created 
Bishop of Lincoln, but in the same year \vas translated 
to the Archbishopric of York, and thus became 
"Primate of England." l{ing Henry VIII. no\v 
requested that easy-going l\Iedici, Pope Leo X., to 
bestow the Red Hat on Archbishop Wolsey, and ,vith 
some reluctance the Sovereign Pontiff responded by 
creating his Grace Cardinal-Priest of the Holy Roman 
Church by the title of Sta. Cecilia in September 1515. 
Perhaps even in pre-Reformation England no more 
gorgeous sight ,vas ever \vitnessed than the ceremony 
of the ne\v Cardinal's investiture. The Hat \vas 
brought from Rome by a special Papal Envoy, \vho 
was met at Blackheath by several Bishops and noble- 
men, and at the gates of the City of London by the 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen, together \\'ith the city 
Guilds; crowds lined the streets as the cavalcade 
proceeded to Westminster. The old chronicler 
quaintly relates how" when the said Hatt \vas come 
to the Abbey of \Vestminster" the Lord Abbot, 



together with his brother Benedictine Abbots of St. 
Alban's, Glastonbury, Bury St. Edmund's, Reading, 
G1oucester, and Te\vkesbury, as \\'ell as the Benedictine 
Cathedral Priors of Winchester and Coventry, all in 
poniijicalihus, received the Envoy and escorted the red 
hat to the high altar "\vhere it "vas sett." 
Upon the follo\ving Sunday the great function itself 
took place in the national Abbey Minster; besides 
these Abbots there "vere present the Prilnates of All 
England and of All Ireland, the Archbishop of Dublin, 
the Bishops of Winchester, Durham, Lincoln, 
Nor\vich, Ely, Rochester, Exeter, and Llandaff, 
together with nlany noblemen, judges, parochial 
clergy, and an imlnense assemblage of faithful laity . 
A fanfare of trumpets announced the arrival of their 
Majesties King Henry VIII. and Queen l{atharine, 
together "vith the Queens-Do\vager of France and 
Then Archbishop Warham of Canterbury sang 
Pontifical High Mass de Spir'llU Sancio, "vith the 
Bishop of Lincoln as Deacon and the Bishop of 
Exeteras Sub-Deacon, \vhile the future martyr, Bishop 
Fisher of Rochester, acted as "crozier" to the Primate. 
Instead of a sermon, the learned Dean Colet of St. 
Paul's preached an appropriate hon1ily upon the duties 
of a Cardinal, after which the Dean of Exeter read 
aloud the Papal Bull. At the Aglllls Dei Wolsey 
advanced from his "traverse" and lay prostrate 
upon the sanctuary, where presently Archbishop 
\'Varham \vas seen reciting the special prayers over 
his brother of York. Finally England's Legatine 
Primate placed the Hat \vith its long tassels upon 
Wolsey's head; thereupon the Te Dell1Jt "vas sung 
\vhilst "the butcher's son" -now "my Lorde 
CardenaIl," Archbishop of York and Prince of Holy 
Church-passed along in solemn procession, with the 
Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk on either side, dis- 



tributing his blessing to the congregation, \vhich 
doubtless cro\vded the nave and aisles of the venerable 
Abbey Church-at that time in" the very zenith of 
its beauty as a result of Abbot Islip's exertions. 
The whole scene affords, as it \vere, a parting glimpse 
of Catholic and" Merrie Y nglonde "; for alas! within 
a few decades the past of nearly one thousand years 
\vas all irrevocably shattered. 
The remainder of Cardinal Wolsey's career is 
familiar history. He became the leading statesman 
of the realm, and, as the King's favourite, this famous 
Cardinal virtually ruled England-ego et 1JlellS rex! 
In the year 1516 he \vas, moreover, created both Papal 
Legate a laiere and Lord Chancellor. He obtained 
the former dignity with difficulty, or rather with force, 
actually for his life-time, and much to our Primate's 
For some time Cardinal Wolsey had held, though 
of course non-resident, the See of Tournai in 
Flanders, as \vell as the premier Abbacy of St. 
Alban's, though not even a monk. From A.D. 1518 
he nominally secured, as a plurality, the Bishopric of 
Bath and Wells for five years. In 1522 his Grace of 
York \vas also appointed Bishop of Durham and held 
that Palatine See for six years, during which he never 
once even visited his splendid Cathedral there. In 
A. D. 1528 he resigned Durham for the still richer See 
of Winchester, \vhich he also held 211 commendam 
\vith the Archbishopric of York, but only for one 
Perhaps nothing could more clearly exemplify the 
antecedents of the coming storm that these scandalous 
pluralities held by \vorldly, absentee, and political 
prelates, \vho spent most of their time at the Court. 
At the Field of the Cloth-of-Gold and other historic 
scenes the Cardinal of York \vas a notable figure, and 
during the vacancies of the Apost0lic See Wolsey \vas 

4 6 


distinctly a papahile-at least he certainly left no stone 
unturned to secure his own election, but in vain. 
"My Lorde Carden all's Grace" then virtuaUy 
became England's Pope himself, thus affording several 
dangerous precedents, and quite un\vittingly paving 
the way for the Royal Suprelnacy of A. D. 1534. 
Disliked as a parvenu and distrusted by the old 
nobility, he, by his suppression of certain snlaller 
religious houses, aroused deep suspicion among the 
poor concerning the future of their patrimony, \vhile, 
for example, Bl. Thomas More, among other holy 
characters, much distrusted his influence. Finally, 
Wolsey's well-meant schemes over poor Queen 
Katharine's divorce ended in his o\vn ruin. Despite 
threats and entreaties, Pope Clement VII. refused to 
annul the I<'ing's marriage, and then there appeared 
upon the scene that actual origin of the English 
" Reformation "-Mistress Ann Boleyn, \vho success- 
fully plotted \V olsey's fall from Henry's favour. 
At length this Cardinal Archbishop of York retired 
to his own neglected diocese and commenced an 
episcopal visitation there during the brief renlainder 
of his earthly career. His Grace no\v sho\ved what 
an excellent bishop he might have been, but, as he 
himself pathetically owned in his last moments, it was 
then too late. For \vithin a short period of his tragic 
arrest, upon November the 4th, 1530, for high treason, 
the exalted prisoner died, partly of fright and partly 
of grief, when on his way to trial in London-and 
doubtless to the block on Tower Hill. 
What a lesson Cardinal Wolsey's life-story affords 
as to the frailty of human greatness! He \vho for 
over thirty years had held the scales of Europe in his 
hands, and had ruled both Church and State in 
England, left the \vorld he had served, rather than 
God, in disgrace, ruined and deserted. Even the 
superb marble cenotaph, which he had designed as 



his last resting-place, v;as seized by his ungrateful 
Sovereign, and is no\V the tomb of Wellington in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, \vhilst the very site of the Cardinal's 
grave is unkno\vn and has perished \vith Leicester 
Nevertheless Cardinal \Volsey \vas one of England's 
greatest statesmen and most devoted patriots; his 
faults in reality \vere fe\v, his virtues many, but a 
\vorldly, alnbitious policy Inarred his career. In the 
entirely unforeseen result King Henry VII I., by 
becoming an avaricious schismatic and a cruel tyrant, 
overthre\v or diverted all the Cardinal's wise but 
dangerous schemes for reform, \vhile upon his death 
England soon ceased to dominate Europe. 
He \vas a great patron of learning, and \vith the 
revenues of confiscated convents founded his 
magnificent "Cardinal College" (now called Christ 
Church) at Oxford. He had also intended to found a 
college in his native to\vn, I ps\vich, \vhile it \vas this 
extravagant Prince of the Church \vho erected for his 
own edification the splendid manor of Hampton 
But whatever his varied "merits may have been, \ve 
English Catholics cannot forget tbat alas! it \vas 
chiefly a Cardinal- Tholnas Wolsey-who un\vittingly, 
and in opposition to both Rome and Canterbury, 
prepared an opening for the terrible changes soon to 
follo\v, \vhen his unlimited and autocratic powers 
were merely transferred to the Cro\vn. 

4 8 


Blessed J ohn Fisher, 


THE Princes of Holy Church wear crimson robes to 
show that, as prelates of ROBle, the city of 
they too are ready, if need be, even to shed their life- 
blood for the Faith. Among our English Cardinals 
one only has attained the glorious palm of martyrdom, 
and he folIo\vs Wolsey in our chronological list. 
This was Blessed JOHN FISHER, a distinguished 
Cambridge scholar, \vho in 1497 became Master of 
Michael House there. The saintly Margaret, Countess 
of Richmond, mother of I{jng Henry VI!., chose him 
as her confessor, and in 1503 appointed him first 
holder of the new "Lady Margaret" Chair of 
Divinity, which she had just founded for the purpose 
of free religious instruction. 
In 1501, Fisher had been elected Vice-Chancellor 
of the University, which he soon restored to its 
ancient prestige; three years later he became 
Chancellor-an office held by him throughout the 
remainder of his life. In this year, 1504, Henry VI I. 
nominated and the Benedictine Chapter elected Fisher 
to the vacant See of Rochester- the Papal Bull of 
provision being dated October the 14th. The ne\v 
Bishop continued his missionary endeavours and 
educational reforms; under his auspices the Countess 
of Richmond founded Christ's College at Cambridge, 
while he himself instituted ne\v Fellowships, lectures, 
etc. Through the munificent bequest of this pious 
and accomplished lady, Fisher was subsequently 
enabled to found St. ] ohn's College, in his old 
University, in A.D. 1511. He \varmly patronized the 
intellectual Renaissance, the ne\v learning, and 



equally vigorously opposed the new heresy, viz., the 
tenets of that apostate friar, Martin Luther. 
But perhaps the most striking feature in the future 
l\1artyr's career lies in the sad fact that he alone, 
among the \vhole English Hierarchy, from its outset 
opposed the ne\v Royal Supremacy over our ancient 
Ecclesia Allglicalla. These Erastian and worldly 
prelates, assembled in convocation, apparently did 
not guess its fateful import; but Bishop Fisher 
boldly told them that its acceptance \vould cause the 
English clergy to be "hissed out of the society of 
God's Holy Catholic Church," and at length secured 
the insertion of that famous saving clause, "quantum 
per legel1l Dei lice!." 
Alone too among the English Hierarchy, Fisher 
refused to recognize the possibility of Henry VIII. 
obtaining a legitimate separation from good Queen 
Katharine, \vhose confessor he was. Together 
his fello\v martyr, BI. Sir Thomas More, Lord 
Chancellor of the realm, Bishop Fisher rejected the 
ne\v Oath of Succession, as far as the vaIidity of the 
King's marriage was concerned; in consequence 
both were comn1itted to prison and tried for high 
This aged and holy prelate \vas nearly killed by his 
sufferings in the To\ver, where he \vas even deprived 
of his books and given insufficient food. Presently 
the famous and infamous Act of Supremacy was 
passed, \vhile Fisher himself was attainted and 
deprived of his See. Crom\vell in person recited the 
terms of the Act to this distinguished prisoner, \vho, 
however, stoutly refused to deny the Papal or 
ackno\vledge the Royal Supremacy. The penalty 
for this \vas a terrible death, but even Henry \,TIII. 
hesitated- for Fisher and More \"ere reno\vned and 
honoured throughout the Christian \vorld, while 
England crouched aghast at such proceedings. 




Mean\vhile, Pope Paul IlL, anxious to assist a 
Catholz:c reformation and unaware of Fisher's plight, 
at a special Consistory held upon May 20th, 1535, 
created the illustrious Bishop of Rochester Cardinal- 
Priest of the Holy Roman Church by the title of 
St. Vitalis. King Henry was furious at the news, 
and actualIy allowed the venerable Cardinal to be 
sentenced, as a traitor, to butchery alive at Tyburn- 
afterwards, however, commuted to decapitation on 
Tower Hill. 
Fisher noted with joy that his passion was fixed 
for the festival of England's proto-martyr St. Alban, 
and comported himself with Christian resignation and 
calm dignity on the scaffold. Here that saintly head, 
on which no Red Hat had yet been placed, received 
the Crimson Crown, not in symbol but in the awful 
reality of his life-blood. The news of the executions 
of Fisher and More produced consternation through- 
out Europe, and led, upon the profanation of 
St. Thomas' Shrine at Canterbury, to the Papal 
excommunication of our English Nero. 
The Martyr's holy Relics at present probably repose, 
neglected and unhonoured, in the Chapel of St. 
Peter-ad- Vincula on Tower Green, though we may 
hope they will yet receive honourable translation. 
Upon the Beatification of the first band of Eng-lish 
Confessors who suffered martyrdom' 'pro Ecclesia Dei," 
John Cardinal Fisher and Sir Thomas More were raised 
to the Altars of the Universal Church by Pope 
Leo XII!., on December 9th, 1886. Their annual 
festival is observed upon May the 4th, and English 
Catholics confidently hope that in God's good time 
the mighty basilica of St. Peter's, Rome, \vill witness 
the solemn Canonization of these faithful and true 
servants of His-" in n10rte quoque non divisi sunt." 

" \ 





del Piombc, 




Pill ,,-if 


Cardinal Pole. 

l\fEAN\VHILE another Englishman had been honoured 
\vith the Roman Purple-one, too, of the most 
illustrious in our series, a member of the English 
blood-royal, and, moreover, personaJ1y unique in that 
undoubtedly he might have been our second English 
REGINALD POLE was a son of the martyred Margaret, 
Countess of Salisbury, the last of the Royal 
Plantagenets, and thus \vas the great-nephew of 
King Edward IV. His kinsman Henry VIII. took 
much interest in his education, and after graduating 
at l\lagdalen College, Oxford, Pole was enabled, 
through the King's bounty, to study at the famous 
University of Padua, and after\vards at that of Paris. 
Upon his second return to England, in A.D. T 530, 
Pole, who, though still a layman, had already been 
created Dean of Exeter, felt obliged to refuse the 
Royal offer of the Northern Primacy, vacant through 
Cardinal Wolsey's death; for alas! the fatal cloud 
had arisen on the horizon-Ann Boleyn, Cromwell, 
and the divorce question were paramount. In the 
year 1532 he \vith difficulty again obtained permission 
from Henry VIII. to leave England, and, during the 
next few years, generally resided at Padua. His 
piety and learning soon became famous, and, despite 
his protests and entreaties, Pope Paul III. created 
Reginald Pole Cardinal-Deacon of the Holy Roman 
Church by the title of SS. Nereus and Achilles in the 
Christmas Consistory of A.D. 1536. 
Mean\vhile frightful scenes were occurring in his 
native land, now plunged into schism and misery: 
the dissolution of the monasteries and the martyrdoms 
had begun, \yhile Cardinal Pole's private expostula- 



tions, addressed to Henry VI I L in a famous treatise, 
only made matters worse for his relatives. 
The noble Pole family, together with their 
adherents, were now all attainted of treason, and 
the Cardinal's English incomes were, of course, 
confiscated. Later on, his elder brother, Viscount 
Montague, the Marquess of Exeter, and other 
kinsmen were executed; finally, after a most cruel 
imprisonment in the Tower of London, his venerable 
mother-Princess and Martyr-was literally hacked 
to death for fidelity to the Papal Supremacy. 
Cardinal Pole had twice acted as Papal Legate for 
the purpose of securing peace between the Emperor 
Charles V. and the King of France, and to assist, if 
possible, the unfortunate English Catholics. But his 
long journeys and untiring efforts were fruitless, while 
Henry's assassins beset him at every step. 
When almost penniless, Pole was appointed 
Governor of the Patrimony of St. Peter by Paul I I I., 
the highest administrative office in the Sovereign 
Pontiff's gift. Moreover, he was created one of the 
Legatine Presidents for the illcumenical Council, 
which at length assembled at Trent-in itself a most 
eloquent tribute to the exiled English Cardinal's 
Upon the death of his kind patron Paul IlL, 
Cardinal Pole not only was the favourite papabile, 
but-like Breakspear alone of our English Cardinals 
-was actually elected Pope. However, owing to his 
unprecedented scruples as to the propriety of the 
election, the longest Conclave on record ended \vith 
the coronation of Julius III. Meanwhile England, 
under her youthful King Ed\vard VI., ,vas now 
the scene of imported heresy and of fearful 
sacrileges; all round Europe the prospects of 
orthodox Christianity ,vere most gloomy, '\vhile 
Pole's Own troubles were particularly grievous. 



Accordingly, sad at heart and \veary of the \vorld, 
the good Cardinal withdre\v into retirement. 
Suddenly he was recalled to publicity by the un- 
expected accession of Catholic Queen !\1ary to 
St. Ed\vard's throne, and soon afterwards started 
upon his famous journey back to his native land, 
as Papal Legate a la/ere for the purpose of reconciling 
England to the Apostolic See of Peter. 
But prolonged delays intervened, \vhich \vere due 
to the Emperor's political schemes, to the Spanish 
marriage, and to the vexed question of the monastic 
lands. However, at length all the difficulties \\7ere 
overcome and Cardinal Pole returned in triumph, 
amid a welcome home of touching enthusiasm, to his 
England's capital. 
Then there followed the memorable and historic 
scene in Parliament on St. Andrew's Day, A. D. 1554, 
when "the royal Reginald, tJ though still only a 
Deacon, as Legate of Pope Julius III. absolved the 
English realm from its past schism and restored it 
to the Catholic Faith and Petrine Unity. Thus \vas 
our patriotic Cardinal privileged to fulfil the dream 
and the aim of his lifetime. 
Cardinal Pole next proceeded in his legatine 
capacity to the necessary restoration of ecclesiastical 
discipline and the redress of late disorders. He 
accordingly convened the national Synod of West- 
minster, at which his famous Decrees "for the 
reform of England and Wales" were promulgated. 
No legislation could have been n10re wise or more 
moderate; here \vas presented a true Catholic 
reformaÜ.on, based upon leg-itimate and ancient 
precedent, as opposed to Protestant destruction, 
based upon lawless and novel innovations. The 
most important of these decrees was that \vhich 
enacted the foundation of ecclesiastical seminaries- 
s ubsequentlyadopted for the Universal Church at Trent. 



Upon the departure of King Philip, the death of 
Bishop Gardiner, and the serious illness of the Queen, 
Pole (recently created Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria 
in Cosmedin) became the leading personage in the 
country. He was now appointed by Pope Paul IV. 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and received his pallium 
in Bow Church on Lady Day, 1556; his Grace was 
also elected Chancellor of both Oxford and Cambridge 
Universities. The Cardinal refused to interfere more 
than was absolutely necessary in political affairs, and 
has been exculpated by common consent of historians 
from any save enforced official connection with the 
cruel persecution of the unhappy Protestant sectaries, 
too often mischievous traitors in addition. Indeed, 
we know that by his kindly personal interviews 
with condemned heretics Pole, on more than one 
occasion, actually saved their souls as well as 
their bodies. 
This zealous Primate vigorously propagated the 
Church restoration, both spiritual and material; 
through his efforts Westminster Abbey was given 
back to the English Benedictines, while the 
Carthusians returned to Sheen, the Bridgettines to 
Syon, the Dominicans to London, the Knights 
Hospitallers to ClerkenweIl, and the restoration of 
St. Alban's, Glastonbury, and even of Canterbury 
itself, as Benedictine Abbeys, were under con- 
But alas! this bright prospect of a Catholic future 
was soon demolished. The Chair of Blessed Peter 
had mean\vhile been twice vacant-upon both occa- 
sions Cardinal Pole was distinctly a PllPabile, and if 
he had proceeded to Rome for the second Conclave 
would probably have, after all, worn the Triple Tiara. 
However, eventually his enemy, Cardinal Caraffa, 
was elected Pope as Paul IV., unfortunatety for both 
Rome and Canterbury. The new Pontiff hated the 



Spanish domination, and in the ensuing war between 
France and Spain, into which King Philip dragged 
our country, cancelled Pole's Legation, despite 
Eng-lish entreaties. 
Far worse, this unpopular and vindictive Pope \vas 
misled by mischievous rumours as to the reason of 
our kind-hearted Primate's leniency, and practically 
accused him of heterodoxy. This cruel and disastrous 
injustice, the childlessness and mortal illness of the 
poor Queen, the return of sectarianism, the veiled 
Protestantism of the heiress to the throne, the loss of 
Calais, and other anxious sorrows, probably brought 
the care-worn Cardinal to a premature grave. Few 
pages in history are more touching than the coincident 
death-bed scenes of Queen Mary and Cardinal Pole, 
whose names and Jives had always been linked 
together, and who thus in death were not divided, on 
that fatal 17th of November, A.D. 1558. 
The last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was 
interred in his Cathedral, near the site of St. Thomas' 
shrine, by his o\vn request. Above the decayed tomb 
a painted panel has lately been placed by his co- 
religionists, containing his proud coat-of-arms and 
other emblems-by courteous permission of its late 
custodian (Dean Farrar). 
This 68th and last lineal successor of our Apostle 
St. Augustine was himself surely an uncanonized 
saint-a most devout Catholic and a truly devoted 
patriot. His moral and intellectual qualities were 
alike of the highest order, and few have combined 
these traits \vith so brilliant a career in the world. 
He \vas the author of several important treatises, 
and a profound Scriptural scholar; his unsurpassable 
provisions for the reunion of England \vith Rome may 
yet afford, in God's Mercy, a precedent for some 
future reconciliation. 
Mean\vhiJe \ve have the consolation of knowing that 


our illustrious See of Canterbury dIsappeared wIth 
one who formed an indeed royal sequel to its right 
royal record-Reginald Cardinal Pole. 

Cardinal Peto. 

ENGLISH sons of the beloved St. Francis of Assisi 
have included within their ranks a brilliant array of 
martyrs, confessors, prelates, men of holy life and 
renowned intellect, but only one Cardinal-\VILLIAM 
PETO ( Peyto). His supreme honours were, 
however, far from a subject of congratulation under 
the unhappy circumstances of their bestowal, and 
were, moreover, distinctly embarrassing to Fr. Peto 
himself. Previous to the terrible schism, this dis- 
tinguished friar had been appointed Provincial of the 
English Grey Friars (Observants). He was also 
confessor to Princess Mary, whose troubles were so 
soon to begin. 
Then came the unhappy divorce question, and Peto 
was the dauntless preacher who dared to rebuke 
Henry VIII. to his face in this matter on Easter Day, 
A.D. 1532, in the Franciscan Church at Greenwich. 
Moreover, in this valiant sermon he had uttered the 
ghastly prophecy about dogs licking up human blood 
-afterwards strangely fulfilled to the letter when 
Henry's corpse was being conveyed to Windsor for 
F or this audacious proceeding Friar Peto was or 
course imprisoned, but eventually was set at liberty, 
and he then went abroad. From Antwerp he 



published a book against the divorce, and corre- 
sponded with several of the future English Martyrs, 
including TII. John Fisher and BI. Thomas More; 
also he occasionally sent friars to visit and 
console that model Franciscan Tertiary, poor Queen 
Katharine of Aragon. Remaining in the Low 
Countries, as Throgmorton's cousin, he was presented 
to Cardinal Pole at Liège in the year 1537 ; the latter 
entrusted him \vith several messages concerning the 
proposed conference behveen Royal Envoys from 
England and himself as Papal Legate. 
Later on Fr. Peto proceeded to Italy and visited 
Rome itself, where he was now apparently presented to 
another Prince of the Church-Cardinal Caraffa, the 
austere founder of the hated Roman Inquisition, of 
whom more anon. In 1539 we find him included in 
the Bill of Attainder passed against the illustrious 
Pole family and their adherents. 1\1eal1\vhile the 
zealous friar took an active part in the various 
projects for the restoration of the old religion in his 
native country. In' 547 Pope Paul III. is stated to 
have appointed him Bishop of Salisbury, but could 
not, of course, secure his territorial possession of 
that See. 
Upon Queen Mary's accession, U my Lord of 
Sarum" returned to England, but, owing to his 
advanced age, appears to have then resigned his 
Bishopric. The good Queen now restored, in the 
first place, Peto's old conventual home at Green\vich, 
whither, accompanied by a few other friars, he 
returned \vith joy; also he was again chosen by Mary 
as her confessor-a considerable testimony to the 
sanctity and \visdom of this venerable son of St. 
rvlean\vhile Cardinal Caraffa had become Pope 
Paul IV.: friar Peto had already, during his residence 
in Italy, merited the high esteerl1 of the new Pontiff, 



who, on June the 14th, 1557, accordingly created him 
Cardinal-Priest (apparently without assigning any 
titular Church). At the same tin1e Pope Paul 
appointed him Legate a latere to England in the place 
of Cardinal Pole. 
For in pursuance of his political schemes, this 
Pontiff had deprived the Cardinal Primate of his 
Legation under painful circumstances already related. 
N ow Queen Mary was every inch a Tudor, and, 
angered at this disastrous Papal proceeding, gave 
orders that the messenger bearing the Biretta and 
the Bulls of appointment was to be arrested at Calais, 
whence his documents were forwarded to West- 
minster. Friar Peto himself sought to be excused 
from accepting these, to him, over,vhelming honours, 
as he was quite happy in his old Friary, and was in 
addition very aged and infirm. 
When the Pope sent his nephe\v to Flanders in 
order to settle various matters with King Philip 11., 
he was also commissioned to persuade Peto to ,'isit 
Rome, but failed to do so. J-Io\vever, the various 
difficulties were aU ended by the ensuing death of our 
only Franciscan Cardinal in April, 1558. 

Cardinal Allen. 

No\v, very appropriately, the first Englishman to 
receive the Sacred Purple after the Protestant 
Reformation and the final breach between England 
and Rome, "vas in himself a link \\'ith our Catholic 
past, and an exiled confessor for the ancient Faith. 


\VILLIAl\I ALLEN was a distinguished Oxford scholar 
\vho, in Queen JVIary's reign, became first of all a 
Fello\v of Oriel, his olJ College, and then Principal of 
St. Mary's Hall, as well as Proctor. 
However, upon Elizabeth's accession and the 
subsequent penalization of Catholic worship, Dr. Allen 
had to resign his University preferments, and left 
England for Flanders. But within a year he returned 
to the old country in disguise, and his visit to his 
native Lancashire resulted in a quite extraordinary 
rally ell, lllaSSe of its unfortunate" Popish Recusants tI 
to the old religion, in addition to numerous conver- 
sions. He n1anaged to escape the search conse.. 
quently instituted by local magistrates, but in A.D. 
1565 had to flee for his very life: he proceeded to 
l\Iechlin, where he \vas after\vards ordained priest. 
As there \vas now a danger of the English priest- 
hood dying out, Dr. Allen conceived the splendid idea 
of founding a Seminary or College abroad for the 
education of English ecclesiastical and lay students. 
The result \vas the famous College at historic Douai, 
in France, \vhich also served as a residence for other 
English exiles for the Faith, mostly University men, 
and which was the first Seminary to be created 
according to the new Tridentine Decree. 
Soon it became evident that the religious change in 
poor England would not be merely of a temporary 
nature, and hence caine the necessity of providing 
n1issionaries to preach Christ's true Gospel there as 
of old. Accordingly, \vith Papal assistance and 
largely through Dr. Allen's efforts, a ne\v English 
Seminary \vas eventually founded in Rome upon the 
site of the Anglo-Saxon Hospice for pilgrims ad 
tintina Apostoloyu11t: thus ,vas realized a \vise scheme 
apparently originated by St. Ignatius Loyola and 
Cardinal Pole. 
Despite the barbarous laws recently enacted there, 



Allen easily persuaded these brave seminary priests 
to go as missionaries to their beloved England, and 
soon the cruel martyrdoms beg-an. Protests having 
failed, our exiled patriot now tried political schemes, 
and vigorously supported the claim of his royal patron, 
King Philip I I. of Spain -formerly husband of the 
late Queen Mary, and poor Marie Stuart's commended 
heir-to the English throne. 
He had lately been compelled by illness to reside 
in Rome instead of at his College, now temporarily 
removed to Rheims, and here he was held in great 
esteem o\ving to his virtues and ability. Finally, on 
August the 7th, 1587, Pope Sixtus V., in a special 
Consistory, created Dr. Allen Cardinal-Priest of the 
Holy Roman Church by the title of 51. Martin in 
The new English Prince of the Church became, as 
it \vere, another Cardinal Pole, and was consumed 
with a profound desire to see his country restored to 
Catholic unity. If the Spanish Armada had 
succeeded, Cardinal Allen \vas to have been created, 
like the saintly Pole, Legate a latere for the 
reconciliation, and then Archbishop of Canterbury as 
well as Lord Chancellor. Meanwhile the hapless 
English Catholics remained loyal to Elizabeth despite 
everything, and after the destruction of 'c the 
Invincible Armada," were only rewarded by increased 
persecution-to this wicked Queen's everlasting 
disgrace. It is, perhaps, but fair to add that Cardinal 
Allen did not introduce his political schemes into the 
English seminaries. 
In A.D. 1589 King Philip nominated him Archbishop 
of Mechlin, but he managed to elude this honour; 
previously the good Card;nal had received extensive 
faculties from the Holy See as "Prefect" of the 
English Mission. Pope Gregory XIV. created this 
learned and illustrious Englishman Apostolic 


Librarian, and also entrusted to him and Cardinal 
Colonna the desired revision of the Latin Vulgate. 
Unfortunately the Cardinal's health was never very 
good, and no\v commenced to fail. On October the 
16th, 1594, he passed a\vay to eternal life, and was 
buried in the Church of the English College, Rome. 
Although his unwise political schemes ended in 
disastrous failure, his ecclesiastical measures 
practically saved England from a similar fate to that 
of Scandinavia, and, in consequence, we English 
Catholics of to-day's "Second Spring" owe to 
Cardinal Allen profound and imperishable gratitude. 
After the French Revolution and the repeal of the 
English penalla\vs, Douai College was transplanted 
to this country, and is now exceedingly flourishing as 
" St. Edmund's, Ware": many of the traditions of 
Catholic Oxford have ever since the time of its founder 
been carefully fostered and preserved in this interest- 
ing reminder of our historic past. 
English Catholics also o\ve to Cardinal Allen their 
present vernacular version of the Sacred Scriptures, 
known as the Douai Bible, \vhich he and Dr. Bristo\v 
edited; the New Testament was published from 
Rheims in the year 1582, during Allen's presidency 
of the College, and the Old Testament from Douai in 
160g. Several other literary works from his pen 
still remain, including the famous treatise on 
Purgatory, recently reprinted. 
The Cardinal appears to have been a man of 
distinguished appearance and charming disposition, 
and \vas thus, somewhat quaintly, described by one 
of his students: "He had a handsome countenance 
and dignified gait, and ,vas on all occasions 
courteous; as regards Inental endo\vments, he was 
pious, learned, discreet, serious, and ot great 
authority; humble, modest, patient, meek, of a 
peaceful disposition; in a word, graced by every 
species of virtue." 



Cardinal Howard, O.P. 

ALMOST a century passed by before another Englishman 
was raised to the Purple; this was the Honourable 
IAS HOWARD - third son of the third 
Earl of Arundel and a descendant of the Martyr Peer, 
who had perished during Elizabeth's reign in the 
Tower of London for our holy religion. The future 
"Cardinal of Norfolk" had for a short titne been a 
Fellow Commoner of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
afterwards proceeding abroad to continue his studies. 
Later on he felt a vocation to join the great Order 
of Friar Preachers, and eventually received the Habit 
of St. Dominic at Cremona on June the 28th, 1645, 
taking the name of Thonlas in religion. 
Lord Arundel (his grandfather) thought the young 
novice had been unduly influenced, and appealed to 
Rome; Pope Innocent X. thereupon both examined 
Brother Howard himself and ordered Propaganda to 
hold an enquiry. The result ,vas that all were fully 
satisfied of the solidity of Ho,vard's vocation, and on 
October the 19th, 1646, this English nobleman was 
professed a Dominican friar in the venerable basilica 
of San Clemente, Rome-still served by Irish 
He was ordained priest in France, and about the 
year 1655 returned to England; here he managed 
to raise k 1,600 odd for the foundation of a new 
English DOlninican Priory and College at Bornhem in 
Flanders, of which he subsequently became the first 
Prior. Fr. Howard was highly esteemed by the exiled 
Prince Charles Stuart, and, upon the death of Cromwell, 
acted as his secret me5senger in England. At the 
Restoration he took an active part in the negotiations 
which preceded the ne\v King Charles the Second's 
engagement to a Catholic Princess, Katharine of 


Braganza. The Royal marriage \vas privately 
solemnized at Winchester according to the Catholic 
Rite, and Father Ho\vard \vas among the fe\v present. 
He \vas no\v appointed to be this Catholic Queen of 
England's first Chaplain and henceforth resided at 
the Court, paying occasional visits to Bornhem Priory. 
The future Cardinal was given a suite of apartments 
at \Vhitehall Palace, and became Grand Almoner to 
the Queen, in \\Those private Chapel he offered the 
Holy Sacrifice in those penal times. He \vas 
exceedingly beloved and, moreover, earned the 
touching title of ,. the common father of the poor; " 
by special pennit he alone of the Royal Chaplains \vas 
allo\ved to appear in his French soutane in public. 
Fr. Ho\vard nlean\vhile eagerly supervised his 
restoration of the English Dominicans, and founded 
a Convent as ,vell, afterwarùs located at Brussels. 
He hilnself only just eluded elevation to the Episco- 
pate as Vicar-Apostolic of England and Wales; 
ho\vever, in A.D. 1674, the gro\ving clamour of 
Protestantism forced him to leave his native land 
for his priory in Flanders. Next year, upon May 
the 27th, this illustrious English friar was created 
by Pope Clement X. Cardinal-Priest of Santa 
Cecilia, but his title ,vas four years afterwards 
exchanged for that of the Dominican Church of Sta. 
Maria sopra Minerva. Upon his departure to Rome, 
in order to receive the Red Hat, he was accompanied 
by several distinguished English Catholics, including 
his uncle, the Ven. \Villianl Viscount Stafford (a 
future l\lartyr), Lord Thomas Howard, and the 
President of Douai College. Henceforth his 
Eminence resided in the Eternal City, acting upon 
several of the Congregations and frequently assisting 
the English Mission. 
At the request of Charles I I., the Sovereign Pontiff 
nOlninated him Cardinal-Protector Ù" curia of Great 


Britain, and soon after\vards we find him securing 
the extension of St. Edward the Confessor's feast to 
the Universal Church. His Eminence practically 
founded the English secular clergy fund, and 
munificently completed the present fabric of our 
historic Colleglo Inglese in Rome, as well as building 
his own adjacent palace, now the Colleglo Beda, 
for occasions of State. 
Meanwhile, with the death-bed conversion of King 
Charles and the accession of a Catholic King, 
James II., to St. Edward's throne once more, the 
persecuted English Catholics emerged in numbers 
surprisingly large, and a wonderful opportunity 
presented itself for our country's return to the 
ancient Faith. Chiefly through Cardinal Ho\vard's 
efforts, in 1685 Dr. Leyburn of Douai was created its 
Vicar-Apostolic (after a vacancy of over t\venty 
years), and on January 30th, 1688, Pope Innl- -'''''nt XI. 
divided England into four Vicariates-Apostolic at 
her zealous King's request. Numerous conversions 
were taking place, and the happy day of reconciliation 
seemed again at hand. 
But alas! James I I. literally threw this unrivalled 
chance away, to the dismay of both the Pope and" the 
Cardinal of England"; in vain Rome counselled 
moderation, and, as in the case of the Armada, the 
result of ignoring the Papal advice \vas indeed 
disastrous. With the Great Revolution, the \vork 
of bigoted and disloyal Protestants, came the 
renewed destruction and increased persecution of 
English Catholicism; the patriotic Cardinal Howard 
\vas deeply distressed, and, like his predecessors Pole 
and Allen, he died with the grief of seeing his life- 
work for England's con version end in partial failure. 
However, his Eminence lived long enough to behold 
the English Province of his Order permanently 
restored-through his own unceasing efforts. He 




P01llþeo Batolli. þillxit. 




t I 

a-litkeI' é'-' Cockerell. þllOtO. 



acquired for English Dominicans and thoroughly 
restored the historic basilica of SSe John and Paul on 
the Crelian Hill, the ancient façade of \vhich was 
built by our only English Pope. Upon his death in 
Rome, on June the 17th, 1694, "the Cardinal of 
Norfolk" \vas buried in his titular Church of the 
l\1inerva, "'here the \vhite marble monument, en- 
graved \vith the Ho\vard Arms, is an object of much 
interest to English visitors. 
Cardinal Howard had in 1689 been appointed 
Archpriest of Sta. Maria Maggiore, but despite his 
elevated position, his handsome incomes, and his fine 
palazzo, this scion of England's noblest family pre- 
ferred to live as a simple friar in the famous 
Dominican priory of Santa Sabina. 

The Prince Cardinal Stuart.- 

ONCE more it was well nigh a hundred years before 
our country became again represented in the Sacred 
College, but at length one of the most interesting of 
Cardinals-indeed, actually a possible King of 
England-was admitted within its august ranks. 
His Royal Highness Prince HENRY BENEDICT MARIA 
CLEMENT STUART was the second son of that titular 
Sovereign, " James I I I., 'J commonly designated "the 
Old Pretender," and the grandson of James II. More- 
over, in his own opinion and in the loyal allegiance 
of not a few adherents to the claim of the elder and 
direct line, this future Cardinal was himself in after 
years de jure King Henry IX. of Great Britain and 


Ireland, and truly Fldei Defensor, as the last of the 
Royal Stuarts. 
He was born in Rome on March the 6th, 1725, and 
was baptized by the reigning Pontiff, Benedict XIII. 
We may note that among the subsequent tutors of 
these t\VO beloved young Princes ,vas an Englishman, 
Sir Thomas Sheridan. 
When "bonnie Prince Charlie" proceeded to 
Scotland upon the ill-fated expedition of '45, his 
brother, the Duke of York, journeyed to Paris after 
the victory of Preston Pans, with the intention of 
leading a Franco-Jacobite army into England, and 
joined the troops entrained at Dunkirk. U nfor- 
tunately various disasters destroyed " the Young 
Pretender's" considerable chances of success, and he 
owed his own personal escape to his brother's fore- 
sight. Prince Charlie now became the hero of 
Europe, and the Royal pair were accorded a great 
reception by the King of France at Versailles. 
But Prince Henry of York, by nature studious and 
retiring, now perceived with sorrow the true meaning 
of Culloden, and determined to abandon the world for 
the ecclesiastical state, towards which he had long 
felt a vocation. 
Eventually upon June the 30th, 1747, his RoyaJ 
Highness received the tonsure from the Sovereign 
Pontiff himself, in the famous Sistine Chapel and in 
the presence of his father U King J ames I I I. J" 
together with the latter's Court. Four days later, 
despite his youthful age of twenty-two, Pope Benedict 
XIV. created this Reverend Duke of York Cardinal 
Deacon of the Holy Roman Church by the title of 
Santa Maria in Campitelli. In this church, through 
his father's bequest, Mass and public prayers \vere 
and are still said every Saturday for the conversion 
of Great Britain, and here is the shrine of St. Leonard 
of Port Maurice, his mother's confessor. 


On account of his royal birth, the new Cardinal was 
granted the right to wear ermine on his scarlet 
mozetta, and also took precedence immediately after 
the Dean of the Sacred College. Upon] uly the 3rd 
his Royal Eminence proceeded in state to the Sistine 
Chapel, where Pope Benedict placed the Red Hat on 
his head. Naturally his \vorldly brother and his 
Protestant adherents were dismayed at all this, and 
henceforth" the Red Cap" became another hindrance 
to the Stuart re-possession of the English Cro\vn: 
this feeling was intensified upon the young Prince's 
recital of the sacerdotal vow of celibacy. 
Our royal Cardinal received the Minor Orders, the 
Sub-Diaconate and the Diaconate, and finally on 
September the 1st, 1747, the Priesthood at the hands 
of the Holy Father himself in this same Sistine 
Chapel. He said his first Mass in the private chapel 
of the Stuart Palace, and administered the Holy 
Communion to his father and members of the Court. 
Pope Benedict XIV. now created the English 
Prince Cardinal-Priest and, later, his Royal Eminence 
sang his first High Mass in the Sistine Chapel, in the 
presence of " King J ames I I I." (recognized as such 
de jure by the Vatican), and no less than twenty-four 
Cardinals. He was also appointed Archpriest of the 
Vatican Basilica and Prefect of the Fabric of St. 
Peter's: among the treasures of its sacristy may still 
be seen the gold chalice, studded with jewels, which 
was a present from this veritable EnzÙzenza of 
In addition to ecclesiastical revenues given him "in 
commendam" by the I{ings of France and Spain, 
Cardinal Stuart held several other Roman preferments. 
His Holiness now assigned to him as his titular church 
that of the Santi Apostoli and, moreover, the 
important office of Camerlengo. Doubtless at the 
patriotic request of the exiled Royal Stuarts, this 



learned Pontiff before his death sealed the ancient 
devotion of ou r country to the martyred soldier, 
St. George, by declaring him military" Protector of 
England. " 
During the ensuing vacancy of the Supreme 
Pontificate, Cardinal Stuart acted as Regent and, 
doubtless, played an important part at the election of 
the ne\v Pope. This was Clement XIII., who, 
shortly after his accession, nominated the Cardinal 
Duke of York titular Archbishop of Corinth, and 
himself consecrated him to the Episcopate in the 
Church of the Holy Apostles. 
Final1y, in A.D. 1761, he was created Cardinal 
Bishop of Tusculum (Frascati), where he took up his 
residence. On the festal occasion of his enthronement 
his father, as "King of Great Britain and Ireland," 
occupied a throne in the sanctuary. 
Here, at his beautiful villa Muti Savorelli, his 
Royal Eminence formed his famous collection of art 
treasures and books. As Bishop of Frascati he was 
both a zealous and a beloved pastor of his flock: he 
promulgated several important decrees at his first 
Diocesan Synod, and rebuilt as well as reorganized 
his Seminary, which he entrusted to the charge of 
learned Jesuit Fathers. 
Cardinal Stuart was present at his unlucky father's 
death-bed on New Year's Day, 1766, and at his 
solemn obsequies, which were celebrated with 
sovereign honours; but, despite his entreaties, the 
Vatican henceforth refused to recognize the Stuart 
title of British Sovereign, or to acknowledge Prince 
Charles Edward to be "King Charles I I l." The 
latter's intemperance sorely grieved the good Cardinal, 
who in consequence composed a pamphlet for 
diocesan distribution upon "The Sins of the 
Drunkard "-recently reprinted by the Catholt"c Truth 


On the death of Pope Clement XIII. the English 
Cardinal once more acted as Camerlengo, and thus 
received in state the Emperor of Austria and the 
Duke of Tuscany upon their visit to Rome. A 
Franciscan friar now reigned from the Petrine Throne 
as Clement XIV., and created Cardinal Stuart Vice- 
Chancellor of the Apostolic See. He appears to 
have been somewhat-shall we say "Bourbon"? 
and to have co-operated, anyhow at Frascati, in 
the Papal suppression of the Society of Jesus, which 
was so curiously soon followed by the Pontiff's own 
The Cardinal of York acted as Camerlengo for the 
third time in the Conclave which elected the holy but 
unfortunate Pope Pius VI. : in this same year there 
died in Rome St. Paul of the Cross, founder of the 
Passionists and a veritable apostle for the conversion 
of England. Cardinal Stuart practically sympathized 
and even built a monastery for the ne\v Order. 
At the Jubilee of A.D. 1775 he presided at the 
ceremony of walling up the Holy Door, and used for 
this purpose a silver trowel, now in the possession of 
Lord Braye. During Pope Pius' famous visit in Holy 
Church's behalf to Austria, his Holiness appears to 
have appointed Cardinal Stuart as his Regentin Rome. 
His Royal Eminence's kindly heart \vas terribly 
saddened by the disastrous termination of his brother's 
career, as well as by the troubles of the latter's 
unhappy and childless wife. Poor Prince Charlie had 
become a wreck of his former and once brilliant self, 
and at length died in the Cardinal's villa at Albano, 
in the year 1788-upon the day following the 
anniversary of his great-grand father's execution, and 
exactly a century after the Great Revolution. Despite 
emotion and painful memories his brother pontificated 
at the Solemn Dirge and Requiem in Frascati 



7 0 


Our Royal Cardinal now peacefully asserted his 
c1aitn to the Throne of England and of his lineal 
ancestors as King Henry IX. "His Majesty" issued 
interesting gold and silver medals in commemoration 
of the event, and declared King Emmanuel IV. of 
Sardinia the heir to his claims, as the next most direct 
descendant of Charles I. From this same fan1i1y is 
descended that Bavarian Princess \vhom the White 
Rose Legitimist League foolishly acclaim "Queen 
Mary II. of England" to-day! 
Then came the terrible French Revolution and the 
audacious Bonaparte invasion of Rome. Widespread 
sympathy was then aroused at this sacrilegious 
usurpation of the Holy City, and in A.D. 1794 Brtïish 
troops were actually sent by Protestant England to 
help protect the Pontifical Throne, but in vain. 
The venerable Pontiff himself, for whose assistance 
Cardinal Stuart had parted with an enormous ruby 
,vorth ;650,000, was dragged into captivity and exile, 
while the poor Cardinal had to flee for very life from his 
beloved Frascati, whereupon the mob sacked his 
beautiful villa. He joined the fugitive King and 
Queen of Naples, and with them was conveyed by the 
hospitable British fleet, on Nelson's flagship, to Sicily. 
Thus the titular de jure King of England was rescued 
by its real de facto Sovereign, George the Third! 
FinaJlythis aged and infirm Prince of Ronta imnwrtalts 
and of Britannia nUlglla took up his abode in Venice, 
utterly ruined and the tenant of a humble lodging. 
For a \vhile he supported himself out of the sale of 
his silver plate, but at length this " son of a hundred 
Kings" ,vas obliged, at the age of seventy-five, to 
avert starvation by becoming the object of monastic 
Even The Tz'mes devoted a leading article to the 
sad tragedy and the hapless fate of the last male 
descendant of Robert Bruce; finally, through the 


intervention of several kind friends, it reached the 
notice of King George I I I., who \vas greatly affected. 
His !\1ajesty at once, in delicate terms, through his 
Ambassador at Venice, offered Cardinal Stuart a 
handsome annuity, which the latter gratefully 
And now, with the ne\v century, the Church arose 
phænix-like from her ashes: the astonished world, 
upon the death of Pius VI., had beheld the Conclave 
at Venice, ,vhere the English Cardinal acted as Sub- 
Dean, elect a new Pope-the Benedictine Pius VII. 
His Holiness proceeded in triumph to his Rome, and 
later the good Cardinal returned to his Frascati. 
where he was received with the greatest enthusiasm: 
doubtless the poor had not forgotten their revered 
Bishop's bountiful charity in the days of his ,vealth. 
His Royal Eminence partially restored his villa and 
there spent the remainder of his life in peaceful 
seclusion. He never ceased to uphold his claim to 
the Crown of England, and now caused gold touch- 
pieces to be made, with \vhich, according to the 
ancient custom, he touched for "the King's evil "-a 
faculty never claimed by the House of Hanover. 
In 1803 the venerable English Cardinal became by 
devolution Dean of the Sacred College and Bishop of 
Ostia and V elletri, but \vas allowed still to reside at 
Frascati; he had held this See for over forty years, 
while, just before his death, he had been a Cardinal 
for exactly s'ixty years. 
l\Ieanwhile his health gradually failed, and on July 
the 13th, 1807, Henry Cardinal Stuart passed away 
to eternal life. It is noticeable that the last of the 
Royal Plantagenets ,vas a Martyr for the Catholic 
faith concerning the Papal Supremacy, while the last 
of the Royal Stuarts was thus a Prince of the Holy 
Roman Church, who died less than a century ago. 
The obsequies \vere celebrated \yith befitting pomp: 

7 2 


as the deceased had been Vice-Chancellor, the lying- 
in-state took place at the Cancelleria, where the Royal 
Arms of England adorned the catafalque. The 
state funeral was solemnized in St. Peter's itself, in 
the presence of the Pope and over thirty Cardinals : 
the body of "Henry IX." was there interred in the 
Stuart vault by the side of the mortal remains of 
"James IlL" and" Charles IlL" Afterwards the 
famous monument by Canova \vas erected with its 
striking inscription, before which every English 
pilgrim pauses and reflects upon the strange irony of 
This titular Sovereign had bequeathed upon his 
deathbed certain ancient Crown Jewels of England 
and other Stuart relics to the Prince-Regent (after- 
wards George IV.), in grateful and graceful acknow- 
ledgment of his imbecile father's kind generosity in the 
past. These priceless family heirlooms included the 
coronation-ring of Charles I. and his sons, taken to 
France by the Cardinal's hapless grandfather 
(J ames II.) in 1688 and now preserved with Scotland's 
regalia at Edinburgh, and the superb sapphire from 
Charles II's. regal circlet \vhich now adorns the 
storied Crown of his Majesty our King-Emperor, 
EdwardVIL The bulk of the deceased's estate was left 
for the endowment of the venerable Scotch College in 
Many souvenirs of this illustrious Cardinal are now 
treasured in Great Britain, and most of them were 
shown to the public a few years ago at the Stuart 
Exhibition. But his chief and best memorial is that of 
having been verily a Prince sans peur et sans rePl'oche 
both of God's Holy Church and of England's proud 


Cardinal Weld. 

AGAIN, for the third time, nearly a century had 
elapsed before the creation occurred of another 
English Cardinal: this \vas THOMAS WELD, of Lul- 
'\vorth Castle, Dorset, the head of an old English 
Catholic family. He was privately educated at home, 
and, upon the outbreak of the disastrous French Revo- 
lution, zealously assisted his father in rendering 
practical help to the exiled religious communities. 
Although the penal laws were still in force, King 
George III. visited the beautiful castle of Lulworth 
several times, when staying at his favourite 
Weymouth; his Majesty always held the Weld 
family in high esteem. 
In A.D. 1796, young Mr. Weld married one of the 
Cliffords-a still more noble English family, again 
adhering to the ancient Faith; however, Mrs. 
Thomas Weld died in the year 1815, and their only 
daughter married her cousin, afterwards seventh Baron 
Clifford of Chudleigh. 
Mr . Weld now felt a vocation to the ecclesiastical 
state, and upon September 1st, 1818, this Squire of 
Lulworth entrusted that family property to the care of 
his younger brother, in order to serve God as a 
sllcel'dos Ùl æterllum. He was at length raised to the 
priesthood by the Arch bishop of Paris, Mgr. Quélen, 
on April 7th, 1821, and next year was appointed a 
curate of the humble Chelsea mission; thence Father 
\Veld \vas removed to that of Hammersmith by the 
Vicar-Apostolic of the London district. 
Later, he was appointed by the Holy See episcopal 
coadjutor to the Vicar-Apostolic of Upper Canada, 
and consecrated Bishop-titular of Amycla by good 
Bishop Poynter, on August 6th, 1826, at St. Edmund's 
College, Ware. But unforeseen circumstances delayed 



his Lordship's departure to Canada; his daughter 
was in failing health, so he eventually accompanied 
Lord and Lady Clifford to Italy. 
Soon after his arrival in Rome, Cardinal Alboni 
probably much surprised Bishop Weld by announcing 
that Pope Pius VI I I. had determined to besto\v upon 
hiln the Red Hat. Accordingly, on March 15th, 1830, 
he was proclaimed Cardinal-Priest of St. Marcellus; 
times were changing in England, \vith the tardy dis- 
appearance of the barbarous penal régÙne, and the 
new English Prince of Holy Church ,vas authoritatively 
assured that his elevation to the Sacred College had 
given general satisfaction there. 
In this same year, we may note that his Eminence's 
brother had the honour of receiving the exiled King 
and Queen of France as his guests at Luhvorth 
Castle. Cardinal Weld lived in the splendid Odes- 
calchi Palace, ,vhere his reception-rooms were often 
crowded with the aristocracy of Rome, as well as by 
large numbers of his fellow-countryn1en. 
Doubtless the Cardinal served on several Roman 
Congregations, and eventually he died in the Eternal 
City on April 19th, I837-a momentous year for the 
throne of distant England, which he had lived to see 
thrown open to Rome's missionaries once more after 
three centuries of unparalleled persecution. His 
Eminence was buried in the Church of Sta. Maria in 
Aquiro, where an elegant cenotaph may be seen to 
his memory. 


Cardinal Acton. 

THE next Englishman to "'ear the Roman Purple ,vas 
distinguished English falnily long connected ,vith 
Naples: indeed, his father had been both Prin1e 
Minister and Commander-in-Chief of that little 
I-Ie ,vas born in Naples itself in 1803, and was 
afterwards sent to England for education. First of 
all, Acton went to Westminster School, but was 
obliged to leave on account of the prevalent bigotry 
against his religion; he then became a private pupil 
of an Anglican clergyman, and afterwards entered 
Magdalen College, Cambridge, as an undergraduate 
-truly a strange education for this future Cardinal! 
Young Acton no\v, despite his surroundings, felt 
called to the priesthood and proceeded to Rome, 
\vhere he entered the famous" Accademia dei Nobili 
Ecclesiastici "; after finishing his course there, he ,vas 
appointed a Domestic Prelate to Pope Leo XII. 
In 1828, the Holy Father appointed him secretary 
to the Papal Nuncio at Paris, and soon afterwards 
Governor of Bologna, then in the States of the Church. 
Upon the accession of Gregory XVI. to the Papal 
Throne, Mgr. Acton received an important appoint- 
ment in the Curia, and later on ,vas created Auditor 
of the Apostolic Chamber, or chief Judge of the 
Roman civil courts. 
Finally, upon July 24th, 1842, Pope Gregory 
created this illustrious Englishman Cardinal-Priest 
of the Holy Roman Church, by the title of Sta. Maria 
della Pace. Hereafter all matters concerning England 
and its dependencies \vere now referred by the 
Sovereign Pontiff to our ne\v Cardinal. 
Through Acton's zealous entreaties, his native land 


was at length divided into eight Vicariates in the 
year 1840 (instead of only four, as since A.D. 1688), 
which was the prelude to the restoration of the 
territorial Hierarchy itself ten years later. His 
Eminence also took great interest in the English 
College at Rome, of which he ,vas Protector t'n curta. 
At the important interview, in 1845, between the 
Holy Father and the dissident Czar Nicholas I. of 
all the Russias, at which the question of the reunion 
of East and West was happily discussed, Cardinal 
Acton acted as interpreter, and was the only other 
person present. At the Pontiff's request, his 
Eminence immediately afterwards wrote an exact 
account of all that passed, but never allowed this to 
be seen. 
Cardinal Acton had seldom enjoyed good health, 
and now, owing to increased weakness, retired first 
of all to Palermo, and then to his beautiful home, 
sunny Naples. Here, in the Jesuits' house, his 
Eminence breathed his last upon June the 23 rd , 1847. 

Cardinal Wiseman. 

WE now reach modern times, and consequently the 
lives of the remaining English Cardinals are \vell- 
known to the general public. The next of our 
countrymen to be honoured with the Purple was 
once more, for the first time since Cardinal Pole, also 
an English territorial Arch 'Jishop and Metropolitan. 
NICHOLAS WISEMAN, born in Spain of Irish parent- 
age, had, in his younger days, resided :for nearly 



twenty years in the Eternal City, where he was 
privileged to rescue from ruin and restore the ancient 
English College. In 1828, he \vas appointed its first 
Rector-a post held by him until the year 1840, 
during which time he enjoyed the various advantages 
of residence in a Papal and unspoilt Rome. 
Dr. Wiseman was then .appointed eleventh and last 
Vicar-Apostolic of the London District, and henceforth, 
through his literary abilities, exercised a unique 
influence in the Anglican Establishment too. More- 
over, he started a Catholic revival, which rescued his 
co-religionists from their Gallican and even Protestant 
Bishop Wiseman was the leading spirit in the final 
movement for the re-creation of our Hierarchy j this 
eventually triumphed on Michaelmas Day, 1850, \vhen 
he himself was appointed the first Archbishop of 
Westminster. Moreover, in the Consistory of Sep- 
tember the 30th, Pope Pius IX. created the ne\v Arch- 
bishop-elect Cardinal-Priest of the Holy Roman 
Church, by the title of St. Pudenziana. 
Finally, upon October the 7th, his Eminence 
received from the hands of St. Gregory's successor 
the pallium of St. Augustine and of Cardinal Pole. 
He no\v published his famous letter from "the 
Flaminian Gate," \vhich caused such an outburst of 
Protestant fanaticism in England against this new 
"papal aggression" -though eventually Rome emerged 
triumphant all along the line. 
Cardinal Wiseman's return journey to England was 
marked with befitting pomp; at Siena he was enter- 
tained by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and at Venice 
was welcomed by its Patriarch. Upon his arrival in 
Vienna, the Austrian Emperor himself received him 
with every honour, and at Cologne the Archbishop 
duly welcomed his brother of Westminster. 
His Eminence was thus the first Cardinal to reside 

7 8 


in this country since the days of the last Catholic 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to whose spiritual heritage 
-now, as it \vere, restored at Westminster-he had 
In 1852, the first Provincial Synod of this second 
Ecclesz'a Al1glicalla was held at Oscott, amid scenes 
of impressive resurrection splendour; it ,vas upon 
this occasion that Newman preached his famous ser- 
mon on the "Second Spring," \\"ith its apt allusion 
to the Roman Purple as "the royal dye of empire 
and of martyrdom," the pledge of an orthodox faith. 
Upon December 8th, 18.14, the Cardinal of England 
-Our Lady's Dowry-\vas a prominent figure at that 
magnificent spectacle in the Vatican Basilica, when 
the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IX., ex catlledra solemnly 
defined the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary. Thus, at the request ot 
the whole Catholic \vorld, \vas our ancient English 
devotion sealed by the mouthpiece of the Universal 
Church of God. 
Cardinal Wiseman was truly a great and patriotic 
prelate-a man of culture, who earned distinction in 
everything he touched. His \vritings have obtained a 
world-wide popularity: inter alia we may note that 
to him principally was due the blest foundation of a 
new Religious Order-the Poor Sisters of Nazareth, 
whose work of infinite mercy is now spreading through- 
out the British Empire. His Eminence peacefully 
vanquished Protestant object
ons, and upon his death, 
in A.D. 1865, may be said to have also obtained the 
admiration of this country, his former enemy. 
The body lay in state in the old pro-Cathedral ot 
St. Mary, Moorfields-built upon the site of a 
penalized "" and recently demolished; 
even The Ti1nes could only compare the extraordinary 
scene at his funeral procession through London to 
that at the Duke of Wellington's obsequies. May 


we not take it as having been the people of England's 
tribute to his memory and, all ut1\vittingly, to the old 
religion of their forefathers? The g-ood Cardinal's 
remains were laid to rest in Kensal Green Cetnetery. 



THE succeeding English Cardinal and Archbishop of 
\Vesttninster ,vas an illustrious convert from 
Anglicanism. HENRY ED\V ARD MANNING had been 
one of the leaders of the Tractarian revival, and at 
the time of his conversion \vas Rector of Lavington, 
Archdeacon of Chichester, and a \vido\ver. After his 
ordination, he studied in Rome at the Accadcl1zia 
Ecclesz"aslica ; upon his return, Father Manning intro- 
duced into England, and himself joined at Bays\vater, 
the Oblates of St. Charles Borromeo. 
\Vhen the archiepiscopal See of Westminster 
becaMe vacant, Pope Pius IX., \vaiving the epis- 
copal names submitted for his choice, ?no/lt proprZ"o 
appointed this simple priest to succeed Cardinal 
Wiseman: the saintly Pontiff believed he was 
inspired in this matter, and certainly the resut t 
justified that belief. 
Dr. Manning was consecrated to the Episcopate 
upon June 8th, 1865, at St. Mary's, Moorfields, by 
the learned Benedictine Bishop of Birmingham (Dom 
Ullathorne), and then, like most of the Saxon Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, proceeded to Rome for his 
pall, \vhich he received from the Holy Father himself 
on September the 29th. The ne\v l\1etropolitan \vas 
a drastic disciplinarian and soon expurgated the 


remnants of Anglo-Gallicanism: yet his first thought 
was for the many thousand children of his London 
flock, for whom he eventually secured the right of 
Catholic education. 
His Grace of Westminster was a þersona grata 
with the genial Pio Nono, despite the difference in 
their temperaments. Very appropriately the heir of 
Canterbury's Primates played an important part at 
the CEcumenical Council of the Vatican in A. D. 1869- 
70; indeed, it is probable that our English Arch- 
bishop was, to a certain extent, the human origin of 
the Infallibility dogma, another favourite belief of our 
faithful ancestors. He, of course, took part in the 
opening procession, when nearly seven hundred 
Bishops of every race and tongue adored the Blessed 
Sacrament, exposed upon the Papal Altar above the 
Body of St. Peter, and paid their homage to the 
Vicar of Christ-a sight besides which Nicæa, 
Chalcedon, or Trent surely pale. 
Finally, in the year 1875, in the Consistory of 
March 15th, the distinguished Archbishop of v\test- 
minster was created Cardinal-Priest, by the appro- 
priate title of SS. Andre\v and Gregory on the 
CreHan Hill: for from this hallo\ved spot England's 
Apostle, St. Augustine, had set forth nearly thirteen 
centuries ago. In his intrepid defence of the Church's 
rights, the ascetic Cardinal Manning greatly resembled 
his martyred predecessor, St. Thomas à Becket; 
curiously, his first official act upon returning to 
England was to open the ne\v Church in honour of 
the " holie blissful Martire," at Canterbury itself. 
When, in 1878, the beloved Pius IX. lay dying, 
his Holiness murmured an affectionate farewell to his 
English Cardinal, with the touching words" Addio, 
carissime." In the ensuing Conclave, the latter 
played no minor part, and ,vas actually proposed, as a 
foreigner, for election by Cardinal Bilio. However, 


he himself pointed out the danger of a non-Italian 
Pope, in view of the recent spoliation of the Temporal 
Power; eventually the venerable Bishop of Perugia, 
Joachim Count Pecci, was elected-Leo XIII., still 
happily and gloriously reigning from St. Peter's 
At Westminster, Cardinal Manning did splendid 
work and won universal esteem. An eloquent 
temperance advocate, he founded U the League of the 
Cross;" a true father of Christ's poor, we find this 
Roman Prince chosen as arbitrator of the London 
dock strike. His Eminence built the temporary pro- 
Cathedral at Kensington, and purchased the site for 
a future Metropolitan Cathedral in Westminster. His 
literary works achieved a large circulation, and in 
every way his long Archiepiscopate of twenty-seven 
years witnessed remarkable advances of the Faith in 
this country; although the tide of conversions had 
somewhat waned, under his auspices the old religion 
now occupied once more a recognized position in 
English public life. 
Then came the fatal attack of bronchitis in the 
winter of A.D. 1892, and, after a solemn profession of 
faith and a pathetic farewell, fortified with alJ the 
rites of Holy Church, Henry Edward Manning passed 
to eternal life. Remarkable scenes were witnessed 
at the lying-in-state at Archbishop's Houge in 
Carlisle Place; rich and poor, especially the latter, 
patiently waited for hours in their thousands to 
defile before the revered dead. The Pontifical Mass 
of Requiem ,vas sung at the Oratory, and thence, 
through four miles of crowded streets, the great 
Cardinal's remains were conveyed to Kensal Green, 
and there interred besides those of Cardinal Wiseman. 
Let us hope, however, that the final resting-place of 
both will be in the mighty basilica at Westminster- 
in itself their superb memorial. 



Cardinal Edward Howard. 

MEAN\VHILE two other Englishmen had received the 
Red Hat. The first of these was ED\V ARD HENRY 
HOWARD, a member of the ancient ducal family of 
Norfolk: he became an officer in the 2nd Life 
Guards and a great favourite in society. 
However, after a severe illness and a \vinter in 
Rome, he appears to have felt something like a 
vocation to the priesthood. But the Colonel of his 
regiment and other friends eventually persuaded the 
popular young officer to remain in the Army-we 
may note that he was even chosen to command the 
Life Guards' squadron which led the military part of 
the procession at the great Duke of Wellington's 
State funeral. Nevertheless his conscience kept 
warning him where his true vocation, his true duty, 
lay, and that call when it comes must be obeyed at 
any price. So finally the "dashing" Guardsman 
resigned his comlnission in the British army to serve 
God in the ecclesiastical state as a pastor of the 
Church Militant: he was thus afterwards the only 
Englishman who has \vorn both the scarlet tunic of 
U Mr. Thomas Atkins" and the crimson mantle of 
,. my Lord Cardinal." 
Mr. Howard proceeded to Rome once more and 
entered its prolific Accadel1zia EcclesÙlstica or 
" purple" Selninary; here among his fellow-students 
\vere the ex-Anglican Archdeacon, Dr. Manning, whose 
humility in learning everything afresh greatly edified 
him, and the present Cardinal Archbishop of West.. 
minster. He usually served Father Manning's Mass 
each morning at 6 a.m., ::lnd gradually the two future 
Cardinals became most intimate friends. 
After the usual course of studies Mr. Howard was 



ordained priest by Cardinal Wiseman in the chapel 
of our historic English College-actually at four 
o'clock in the morning-on the festal day of the 
definition of our Blessed Lady's Immaculate Con- 
ception, before the great function began in St. Peter's 
The ex-Guardsman soon wished to become a 
missionary in the East, and accordingly studied 
Oriental languages, in which he gre\v very proficient, 
but his Holiness Pope Pius IX. insisted upon his 
remaining at Rome, where his services were already 
much in request. The good English Father \vas a 
favourite and revered confessor, especially among 
soldiers and the poor. He 'was at this period enl- 
ployed in the diplomatic service of the Holy See, and 
later on was sent by the Supreme Pontiff to India in 
order to arrange matters and settle difficulties 
between England and Portugal as to the ecclesiasti. 
cal government of the Province of Goa. He was 
evidently a great favourite too \vith Pope Pius, and, 
when poor Mgr. Talbot had to be removed to an 
asylum, Father Howard to some extent took his 
place in the Papal inner circle. 
He was now nominated to the episcopate, and on 
July the 7th, 1872, was consecrated titular Arch. 
bishop of Neo-Cæsarea, at the altar of St. Peter's 
Chair in the Vatican Basilica, by his Eminence 
Cardinal Sacconi. Soon afterwards he was appointed 
Coadjutor to the Bishop of Frascati, and became 
especially ardent in administering the Sacrament of 
Confirmation to the poor of Rome and its environs. 
Finally, on March the 12th (St. Gregory's Day), in 
the year 1877, his Grace \vas created by the aged 
Pius IX. Cardinal-Priest of the Holy Roman Church, 
by the title of SS. John and Paul on the Cre1ian Hill. 
It is interesting to recall ho\v his collateral ancestor, 
another Cardinal Howard, O. P., about t\VO hundred 


years previously had also received this basilica as his 
titular church. 
The new Cardinal lived a simple and frugal life at 
the Palazzo Negroni: he was appointed Protector 
of the English College, and afterwards bequeathed 
the whole of his splendid and valuable library to 
that remarkable institution. His Eminence's truly 
apo5tolic interest in missionary work never flagged; 
thus he vigorously advocated the restoration of the 
Scotch Hierarchy, which was the first official act of 
his Holiness Pope Leo XIII. 
Above all, Cardinal Howard worked strenuously 
and continuously for the reunion of the schismatic 
East with Rome; he was a prominent member of 
Propaganda-the Sacred Congregation charged with 
the supervision of Catholic missions all over the 
world-and would hold long interviews with Eastern 
ecclesiastics. His frankness and kindness of heart 
won the noble English Cardinal a host of friends; we 
find him assisting the foundation of the Catholic 
University at Washington, U.S.A., and also of the 
Canadian College in Rome itself. In December, 1881, 
this British Emz"nenza was appointed Archpriest of 
the Vatican Basilica and so, as its Prefect, had 
supreme charge of the mighty fabric of St. Peter's; 
as already related, another English Cardinal had held 
this office, too, in the preceding century-none other 
than the last of the Royal Stuarts. 
Finally, in A. D. 1884, Cardinal Howard ,vas raised 
by Leo XIII. to the exalted rank of Cardinal Bishop 
of Frascati-curiously thus again succeeding his 
Royal English predecessor, the Cardinal Duke of 
York. It was indeed a valuable testimony to Rome's 
estimate of her English Prince of the Church, but 
within three years his Eminence's health seriously 
failed; he was taken to England in the hopes that 
his native air might prove beneficial, but in vain. 

I f 







/iss Dt'llllt'. jillxit. Hédl..'er <.
 Corl..'f'rf'l!. þhoto. 




After a long illness, during \vhich his mind became 
affected, his Eminence died at Brighton, on the 16th 
of September, 1892. 
The dead Cardinal was buried at his family's 
ancestral .l\rundel, in the beautiful Fitzalan Chapel 
of the ancient Parish Church. As the private property 
of the Hovlards, this portion remains in Catholic 
hands, and has been exquisitely restored by the 
fifteenth Duke of Norfolk, England's premier peer. 
His Grace the ne\v Archbishop of \Vestminster 
officiated, and the Cardinal's old regiment was repre- 
sented at the funeral; after\vards the body of this 
true soldier of Christ \vas deposited near the holy 
remains of the Venerable Philip Ho\vard, Earl of 
.,.. Arundel, \vho died a Martyr in that prison of pathos, 
the Beauchamp To\ver. 

Cardinal Newman. 

THE other Englishman thus honoured ,vas, in son1e 
\vays, the most famous of all England's Cardinals, 
and \vas gifted with perhaps the most brilliant intel- 
lect of the nineteenth century. J OH
as an Anglican, had been Vicar of the University 
Church at Oxford, Feno\v of Oriel College, and the 
real leader of the Tractarians. Then, largely through 
an article \vritten by Cardinal vViseman, came doubts 
as to the orthodoxy of Anglicanism, and eventually the 
historic scene at Littlemore, \vhen N e\vman, humbly 
as a "little child," begged for admission into Christ's 
F old at the hands of an Italian Passionist. This \vas 





the saintly Father Dominic, who, like the founder 
of his Order, had, as a shepherd boy, been seized 
with a strange burning desire to \vork for distant 
England's conyersion. 
Dr. N e\\1man \vas ordained priest, and eventually 
entered the Oratorian Congregation of St. Philip 
N eri: the Edgbaston Oratory \vas founded by him. 
I t must be confessed that this distinguished convert 
was afterwards not too well understood by some 
of his co-religionists, nor even at the Vatican 
under Pius IX. His splendid schemes for a Catholic 
College, first at Oxford and then in Dublin 
both fell through. Save for his unrivalled \vritings, 
the greatest of English Catholics, from whose seces- 
sion the Church of England never \viII recover, lived 
in complete seclusion at Edgbaston-out of touch 
\vith the dominant section, and some\vhat estranged 
from Cardinal Manning himself. 
As is widely known, F. Nev:man \vas a leading" In- 
opportunist" at the time of the Vatican Council; 
although he, of course, believed in the doctrine of 
Papal Infallibility, and had indeed years before taught 
it in public, he considered its definition \vould be 
both un\vise and unnecessary. Moreover, he shared 
the natural alarm of the "constitutional" party at 
the favour shown to extreme Ultramontanes, and at 
certain memorable incidents in the Council's history. 
However, the eventual moderation of the definition 
itself, which promulgated official as opposed to per- 
sonal infallibility, was welcomed by Newman, \\'hile 
the result has since displayed ho\v erroneous these 
inopportunist fears were in most respects. 
With the accession of the learned Pope Leo XIII. 
to the Supreme Pontificate, the moderate party 
gained ground and, upon the petition of certain 
influential English Cê tholics, headed by his Grace 
the present Duke of Norfolk, one of our beloved 



Holy Father's first official acts was to elevate 
Dr. N e\vman to the Cardinalate. He \vas created a 
Cardinal Deacon, and received, very appropriately, 
the titular Church of St. George in Velabro: upon 
receipt of the glad ne\vs, he is said to have uttered 
the touching exclamation, "The cloud is lifted from 
me for ever." 
Despite his age, his Eminence proceeded to Rome 
and \vas invested \vith the Red Hat in the Consistory 
of 1\lay 15th, 1879. By a special privilege he \vas 
dispensed from residence in Curia, and \ve may also 
note that there \vere no\v, once more, actually 
three English Cardinals. 
Cardinal N e\vman \vas accorded a befitting \vel- 
come upon his return to England, and it may safely 
be stated that our country \vas remarkably proud 
of her ne\v Prince of the Church. His Eminence 
continued until his death, upon August 11th, 1890, 
at the age of ninety, to publish that reno\vned series 
of \vritings, couched in his incomparable English, 
which are treasured \vherever our tongue is spoken, 
and through \\'hich he has become, as it \vere, the 
second "Apostle of England." One may \vell ask 
where ,,-ould the Catholic Church in this country be 
to-day but for John Henry Ne\vman? \vho" being 
dead, yet speaketh" by these immortal \vorks, year 
by year dra\\-ing unkno\vn numbers to the One True 
In private life, the great Cardinal \vas surely a 
Saint in all but name, and may \ve not hope that his 
venerated remains, at present resting at quiet 
Rednal, will be translated some day to the 
magnificent memorial Basilica about to be erected In 
his own Edgbaston? 



Cardinal Vaughan. 
AND now we come to the familiar name of the third 
Archbishop of Westminster, the last and living repre- 
sentative in this long and magnificent series of 
England's Cardinals. HERBERT VAUGHAN is the head 
of an ancient English family, which in the penal days 
suffered much for its staunch adherence to the Faith 
of our fathers. 
The eldest son of the late Lieut.-Colonel Vaughan, 
he abandoned his patrimony in response to a 
vocation to the Priesthood-the beautiful estate 
of Courtfield Manor being handed over by him to his 
younger brother, Colonel Francis Vaughan. This 
future Cardinal also completed his studies at the 
Accademza Ecclesiastica in Rome, and after his 
ordination in Lucca Cathedral, on October 28th, 1854, 
F ather Vaughan returned to England. Here he 
became Vice-Rector of St. Edmund's College, 
Ware; later on he joined the Oblates of St. Charles 
at Bayswater. 
However, all this time his heart appears to have been 
elsewhere; for Herbert Cardinal Vaughan was ahvays 
devoted to the evangelization of heathen lands, and 
eventually obtained Cardinal Wiseman's consent to 
his ambitious project of founding an English seminary 
for foreign Missions. 
Accordingly, in 1863, Father Vaughan went to 
North and South America, and there appealed for 
funds: with these he purchased a house and some 
land at Mill Hill, near London. Here he started St. 
Joseph's Missionary College ,vith one student, which 
has since developed into a large building and a most 
flourishing institution; from it have sprung branch 
houses-even a branch Order in the U. S. A. for 
coloured races - ht:ndreds of missionaries, and 
thousands of black converts. 



For several years Dr. Vaughan devoted all his 
time and boundless energy to Mill Hill: \ve find him, 
too, present at that illcumenical assemblage, the 
Vatican Council. Ho\vever, in A.D. 1872, Pope Pius 
I X. appointed him second Bishop of Salford, where he 
received episcopal consecration at the hands of 
Ietropolitan of England and 
Wales, upon the anniversary of his sacerdotal ordina- 
tion, October the 28th. 
Here his Episcopate ,vas note\vorthy in several 
respects: he founded the Catholic Social Union, for 
uniting the several classes of society in Christian 
fraternity, and \\.as also one of the originators of the 
useful Catholic Truth Society. Bishop Vaughan built 
a diocesan seminary and an episcopal residence, 
while he vigorously helped the administrator of his 
Cathedral in clearing off the debt upon that sacred 
edifice. As a result he had the consolation of con- 
secrating it upon June 14th, 1890, with the solemn 
rites of Holy Church, assisted by several other 
English prelates. This scene of impressive splendour 
quite recalled in imagination the bye-gone Catholic 
days of "ye Faithful North." 
At the actual moment of Cardinal Manning's death, 
the Bishop of Salford \vas saying 
iass for him in the 
adjacent private Chapel; not long after,vards a Papal 
Bull, dated April 8th, 1892, translated him to the 
important archiepiscopal See of Westminster. In 
this respect it is remarkable \\'hat a corporate service 
the Vaughan family have rendered the Church: thus 
all his brothers, save hvo, became priests (including the 
late Archbishop of Sydney), and all his sisters nuns 
(one of \vhorn died in the odour of sanctity). 
For the first time since the Reformation-since his 
predecessor of Canterbury, Cardinal Pole, \vas 
invested with it at Bo\v Church-an English Metro- 
politan no,v received his pallium here in England, at 

9 0 


the London Oratory, amid a brilliant pageant of 
spiritual resurrection, on August the 16th, 1892. 
Finally, in the follo\ving year, his Grace of West- 
minster was raised to the Roman Purple by Pope 
Leo XIII. at a Consistory in ,vhich, in accordance 
with the Tridentine decree enjoining the inter- 
nationalization of the Sacred College, the Archbishops 
of Armagh, Cologne, Prague, Rouen, Seville, and 
Tours, \vere among the recipients of the Red Hat. 
The new Cardinal of England held the customary 
reception on January 16th, 1893, at the venerable 
English College, and delivered an interesting as well 
as patriotic address. In memory of our historic past 
the Holy Father purposely besto\ved upon Cardinal 
Vaughan the titular Church of SS. Andrew and 
Gregory on the Crelian-so dear to every English 
Catholic heart. 
At Westminster the chief events of his Eminence's 
reign are matters of common kno\vledge. The 
issue of the famous Bull Apostolicæ Curæ fornlally 
and final1y condemning Anglican Orders as null and 
invalid ,vill always form a notable incident in it. 
In 1894, his Eminence decided to commence building 
the l\JIetropolitical Cathedral of Westminster, in 
memory of his predecessors, choosing the late- 
lamented Mr. Bentley's remarkable design of a vast 
Byzantine basilica. He himself laid the foundation- 
stone, on June the 29th, \vhile the Holy Sacrifice 
was offered by the Cardinal Primate of All Ireland. 
Amid the nlagnificent celebrations at Ebbsfleet, in 
the year 1897, to commemorate the thirteenth 
centenary of the arrival of St. Augustine of Canter- 
bury from Rome, Cardinal Vaughan ,vas the central 
figure as the heir of England's Apostle. His 
Eminence Cardinal Perraud, the distinguished Bishop 
of Autun and the lineal successor of St. Syragius, 
among others, journeyed from the Continent to be 


9 1 

present. 'Vhen the long procession filed past \vith 
the Benedictine monks, members of our unbroken 
English Congregation, singing the identical anthem 
chanted by St. Augustine and his monastic com- 
panions, \vith the complete Hierarchy of England and 
Wales, and ended by the Cardinal-Archbishop of 
\tV estminster, vested in full pontificals, \vith the 
historic þallÙun Calltuariellse over his chasuble- 
whose heart could have remained unmoved? who did 
not marvel at this august indestructibility of the 
ancient Faith? " Cæsar" may strive his \vorst, but 
the Church founded upon the Rock, after three 
centuries of penal persecution, once more adorns and 
covers our land ! 
The erection of Westminster Cathedral itself has 
been principally due to the incessant zeal of its 
Cardinal Archbishop, and its solemn consecration will 
form the happy seal of this "Catholic restoration" 
era: for the second spring is already spent, the oft- 
heralded summer is surely no\v at hand. Here, 
day by day, the Divine Office \vill be chanted and 
High )Iass offered \vith cathedral splendour, as of old, 
at Canterbury or York, Durham or Lincoln, or in 
the neighbouring .A.bbey of royal Westminster. 
Besides inaugurating all this, Cardinal Vaughan 
has also succeeded in erecting a ne\v Archbishop's 
House and Chapter Hall, etc., adjacent-the \vhole 
forming a noble pile of buildings. Almost alone \vith 
St. Gilbert of Sempringham among Englishmen, a 
founder of a Religious community, he can also no\v 
rank \vith many a pre-Reformation prelate as a great 

lean\vhile, our indefatigable Enzinellza has founded 
yet another religious organization-the " Crusade of 
Rescue," principally supported by children, for the 
salvation of hapless littl
 waifs in danger of pro- 
selytism-truly a chief shepherd's \vork. Ivloreover, 

9 2 


he has ahvays been a foremost champion in the cause 
of Catholic education, whether in seminaries, at the 
national Universities, or in the public elementary 
schools of our country. 
Tall and handsome, courteous and frank, "the 
Cardinal" looks every inch a Prince of the Sacrosancta 
Ronzalla Ecclesia; his unaffected kindness of heart 
and his sterling liberality of mind have secured the 
cordial esteem of many besides his own flock. A 
zealous apostle, a great organizer, a commanding 
and charming personality, his Eminence forms a 
\vorthy final link in this illustrious crimson chain of 
our English Cardinals--one of the many Petrine fetters 
which bind England to Rome. 

























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D PRAYER BOOKS (continued). 15 

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Baxter, Dudley 

Baxter, Dudley 
Englands cardinals